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Dioxins and dioxin-like persistent organic pollutants in textiles and chemicals in the textile sector
Boštjan Križanec, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2006, review article

Abstract: Over ▫$7x10^5$▫ tons of dyestuff is produced annually with more than 100.000 commercially available dyes. Synthesis of colorants involves a relatively large group of chemicals with complex syntheses. During the synthesis of colorants, highly toxic, cancerogenic and persistent organic compounds, such as dioxins, can be formed. Dioxins are related to halogenes, chlorine and bromine homologues being the most toxic and persistent. About 40% of globally used colorants contain organically bound chlorine. The use of colorants in textile industry, with their wide applications and complex chemistry could be a significant source of dioxins and/or precursor compounds for the formation of dioxins and other persistent organic pollutants. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the dioxin-like compounds in chemicals, with emphasis on colorants, textiles and their fate in the environment.
Keywords: textile industry, dioxins, dyes, pigments, textiles, persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans
Published: 05.07.2017; Views: 454; Downloads: 277
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Microvoid system in fibres
Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, Diana Gregor-Svetec, 2002, original scientific article

Abstract: The macrovoid system of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(propylene) (PP) fibres was studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Commercial PET textile fibres were treated in different media and the influence on fibre homogeneity was followd by SAXS. PP technical fibres were manufactured on a laboratory spin-drawing device and subsequently drawn at different drawing conditions on a laboratory drawing device. The influence of drawing on the pore system was followed.
Keywords: textile industry, textile fibres, morphology, structure, investigations, SAXS, poly(ethylene terephtalate), PET, poly(propylene), PP, voids, microvoids
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 727; Downloads: 67
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Investigations of the structure and process parameters of sewing operation
Daniela Zavec Pavlinič, Zvonko Dragčević, Dubravko Rogale, Jelka Geršak, 1999, original scientific article

Abstract: An original measuring equipment and a system for investigating process parameters of the sewing operation structure and for establishing optimal working methods and real working conditions of the man-machine system in garment sewing are presented. The measuring equipment consists of a process parameter measuring and data storing system and a bi-plane video recording system. The measuring and data storage system is equipped with four sensors which measure the rotation speed of the main shaft, the movements of arms in the picking-up and laying-off zones, and the movements of the pedal regulator used to control the sewing dynamics. The bi-plane video recording system is used to record simultaneously the working movements (working methods) performed at the discussed workplace. From the process parameter measurements graphs for the technological operation structure are obtained, including the duration of individual suboperations and changes occuring due to pedal regulator movements. The bi-plane video recording system investigates the working method employed, the basic movements and and the optimal logical sets of movements, as well as the cyclograms of the movements used to define space and time values. The results obtained are compared with the MTM results, and the differences between them are presented.
Keywords: textile industry, garment engineering, sewing operation structure, process parameters, bi-plane video recording, workplace design
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1536; Downloads: 32
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Compact spinning for improved quality of ring-spun yarns
Momir Nikolić, Zoran Stjepanović, Franc Lesjak, Andrej Štritof, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: A new impulse in the field of ring spinning technology is offered by compact-condensed spinning. The article presents the comparison of two chosen spinning systems for the production of compact yarns. We have analysed and compared the physical, mechanical and morphological properties of conventional and compact yarns, spun at the same technological and kinematical parameters from the same cotton, cotton/PES and cotton/viscose roving. The construction specificities of the Suessen and Zinser compact ring spinning frames, on which the comparative spinning was performed, are described within this work. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of differences in compacting systems on yarn quality, and to compare the compact and conventional yarns produced.
Keywords: textile industry, ring spinning, compact spinning, compact yarns, mechanical properties, physical properties
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1355; Downloads: 31
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Structure-mechanical properties relationship of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers
Milena Žiberna-Šujica, Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: The correlation between the fiber structure and mechanical properties of two different poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber types, that is, wool and cotton types produced by three producers, was studied. Fiber structure was determinedusing different analytical methods. Significant differences in the suprastructure of both types of conventional textile fibers were observed, although some slight variations in the structure existed between those fibers of the same type provided by different producers. A better-developed crystalline structure composed of bigger, more perfect, and more axially oriented crystallites was characterized for the cotton types of PET fibers. Crystallinity is higher, long periods are longer, and amorphous domains inside the long period cover bigger parts in this fiber type in comparison with the wool types of fibers. In addition, amorphous and average molecular orientation is higher. The better mechanical properties of cotton PET fiber types, as demonstrated by a higher breaking tenacity and modulus accompanied by a lower breaking elongation, are due to the observed structural characteristics.
Keywords: textile industry, fibers, mechanical properties, polyethyleneterephthalate
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1322; Downloads: 90
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Case study of the sonochemical decolouration of textile azo dye Reactive Black 5
Simona Vajnhandl, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The decolouration and mineralization of reactive dye C.I. Reactive Black 5, a well-known representative of non-biodegradable azo dyes, by means of ultrasonic irradiation at 20, 279 and 817 kHz has been investigated with emphasis on the effect of various parameters on decolouration and degradation efficiency. Characterization of the used ultrasound systems was performed using calorimetric measurements and oxidative species monitoring using Fricke and iodine dosimeter. Experiments were carried out with low frequency probe type, and a high-frequency plate type transducer at 50, 100 and 150 W of acoustic power and within the 5-300 mgžL initial dye concentration range. Decolouration, as well as radical production, increased with increasing frequency, acoustic power, and irradiation time. Any increase in initial dye concentration results in decreased decolouration rates. Sonochemical decolouration was substantially depressed by the addition of 2-methyl-2-propanol as a radical scavenger, which suggests radical-induced reactions in the solution. Acute toxicity to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was tested before and after ultrasound irradiation. Under the conditions employed in this study, no toxic compounds were detected after 6 h of irradiation. Mineralization of the dye was followed by TOC measurements. Relatively low degradation efficiency (50% after 6 h of treatment) indicates that ultrasound is rather inefficient in overall degradation, when used alone.
Keywords: textile industry, wastewater treatment, textile dyeing, reactive dyes, azo dyes, decoloration, ultrasound, degradation, decoloration kinetics, oxidizing species
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1490; Downloads: 72
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Efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation method for the treatment of dyebath effluents
Vera Golob, Aleksandra Vinder, Marjana Simonič, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Textile dyeing processes are among the most environment-unfriendly industrial processes, because they produce coloured wastewaters that are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. The coagulation/flocculation method was studied as a wastewater treatment technique for the decolourization of residual dyebath effluents after dyeing cotton/polyamide blends using reactive and acid dyes. It was discovered that acombination of aluminium sulphate and a cationic organic flocculant yields an effective treatment for residual dyebath wastewaters since almost complete decolourization was achieved, TOC, COD, AOX, BOD and the anionic surfactants were reduced and the biodegradability was increased.
Keywords: textile industry, reactive dyes, acid dyes, wastewater, čiščenje odpadnih vodwastewater treatment, flocculation, coagulation, ecological analyses, wastewater decoloration, Jar-tests
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1682; Downloads: 78
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Ultrasound in textile dyeing an the decolouration/mineralization of textile dyes
Simona Vajnhandl, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2005, review article

Abstract: In recent decades ultrasound has established an important place in different industrial processes such as the medical field, and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The idea of using ultrasound in textile wet processes is not a new one. On the contrary there are many reportsfrom the 1950s and 1960s describing the beneficial effects of ultrasound in textile wet processes. The aim of this paper is to review some fundamentals of ultrasound, its broad application and gather some new researchand studies regarding ultrasound application in textile wet processes,with the emphasis on textile dyeing and the decolouration/mineralization of textile wastewaters.
Keywords: textile industry, textile dyes, wastewater, decoloration, degradation, ultrsound
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1228; Downloads: 33
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