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1.
Encyclopedia of complexity and systems science
dictionary, encyclopaedia, lexicon, manual, atlas, map

Abstract: Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, and genetic algorithms. Examples of near-term problems and major unknowns that can be approached through complexity and systems science include: The structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the integration of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics as systems biology; human longevity limits; the limits of computing; sustainability of life on earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters; the dynamics of turbulent flows; lasers or fluids in physics, microprocessor design; macromolecular assembly in chemistry and biophysics; brain functions in cognitive neuroscience; climate change; ecosystem management; traffic management; and business cycles. All these seemingly quite different kinds of structure formation have a number of important features and underlying structures in common. These deep structural similarities can be exploited to transfer analytical methods and understanding from one field to another. This unique work will extend the influence of complexity and system science to a much wider audience than has been possible to date.
Keywords: cellular automata, complex networks, computational nanoscience, ecological complexity, ergodic theory, fractals, game theory, granular computing, graph theory, intelligent systems, perturbation theory, quantum information science, system dynamics, traffic management, chaos, climate modelling, complex systems, dynamical sistems, fuzzy theory systems, nonlinear systems, soft computing, stochastic processes, synergetics, self-organization, systems biology, systems science
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1487; Downloads: 69
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2.
Political systems affect mobile and sessile species diversity - a legacy from the post-WWII period
Sara Cousins, Mitja Kaligarič, Branko Bakan, Regina Lindborg, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political "map" of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.
Keywords: biology, plants, birds, political systems
Published: 19.06.2017; Views: 239; Downloads: 196
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3.
Translational and personalized medicine
Krešimir Pavelić, Tamara Martinović, Sandra Kraljević-Pavelić, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The idea behind personalized medicine is to tailor health care to an individual’s unique genetic makeup. Hitherto, “one size fits all” approach was used in medicine. With the rise of personal medicine, we are moving towards a more precise, predictable and powerful medicine that is customized for each individual patient. To allow for an improvement in the acceleration and efficacy of drug development, high-throughput methods (“omics”) are rapidly being developed. This leads to understanding of multiple factors that are involved in disease progress on an individual level. In order to analyze the great amount of data that is collected from such experiments, one has to turn to systems biology, an interdisciplinary science that studies complex interactions within a biological system. Finally, translational medicine comes into play, by “translating” the information gathered from research into diagnostic tools, medicines and policies, with the final goal of improving individuals’ health. Personalized medicine is one of the future, and it will revolutionize the current practice of diagnosis-based medicine, once fully developed.
Keywords: personalized medicine, translational medicine, clinic, high-throughput methods, systems biology
Published: 08.10.2018; Views: 123; Downloads: 157
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