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1.
INTEGRACIJA INOVACIJSKEGA PROCESA TER UPRAVLJANJE INOVACIJSKEGA PORTFELJA
Tomislav Grozaj, 2011, final seminar paper

Abstract: Uporaba inovacijskega managementa, managementa idej ter sistemskega reševanja problemov se povečuje, vendar že veliko število podjetij po svetu, še posebej iz bolj inovativno razvitih družbenih okoljih, že uporabljalja sisteme ter metodologijo življenskega cikla produktov in upravljanje inovacijskega porftfelja. Ta orodja vodijo idejo skozi njene faze predlogov, oblikovanja ter proizvodne faze načrtovanja. Inovacijski proces opisuje celovit okvir tehnologije in storitev, katera omogočajo podjetjem, njihovim partnerjem in odjemalcem, da skupinsko konceptualizirajo, načrtujejo, oblikujejo, gradijo ter upravljajo z produkti skozi njihov proces. Inovacijski procesi se dandanes ne osredotočajo samo na postopek od ideje do denarja, ampak nekatera proizvodna podjetja danes dosegajo že nekatere postopne izboljšave v razvojni fazi produktnega procesa. Tako na primer kombinirajo informacije iz različnih sistemov, obsegajoč vse od MS Word dokumentov in vse do računalniško podprtega načrtovanja, kot je CAD , kjer pridobivajo podjetja pretok ustreznih informacij za vse vpletene znotraj procesa in zagotavljajo, da vse interesne skupine upravljajo in izvajajo svoje funkcije iz baze najnovejših informacij. Z upravljanjem projektnega portfelja imajo podjetja pregled nad celotno kolekcijo inovacijskih produktov, kjer portfelj pomaga podjetjem se osredotočiti na resurse oz. vire sredstev. Tako zagotavljajo v podjetju inovacije najvišjih vrednosti ob upravljanju tveganja in negotovosti pri predstavljanju novih izdelkov na prodajni trg. To je omogočeno skozi centralizirano produktno planiranje, ocenjevanje stroškov in predvidevanj, oblikovanje finančnih načrtov in modelov ter ustvarjanje transparentnih informacij skozi inovacijski proces.
Keywords: : inovacija, inovacijski proces, inovacijski portfelj, tehnike ustvarjalnega razmišljanja, odprti-zaprti inovacijski pristopi, implementacija idej, TRIZ, State-Gate proces, poslovni načrt
Published: 24.11.2011; Views: 1255; Downloads: 118
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2.
Multivariate data analysis of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acid profiles in the discrimination between normal blood tissue and various disease states
Zdenka Cencič-Kodba, Darinka Brodnjak-Vončina, Marjana Novič, Uroš Potočnik, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: The investigation presented here aims to compare the fatty acid composition of red blood cells of patients with different disease states and to test the hypothesis that the changes in fatty acid profiles derived from erythrocyte phospholipids might be relevant to various diseases. The study sample consisted of 342 blood donors, among them 135 with inflammatory bowel disease, 53 with uterine leiomyoma, 14 with verified absence of uterine leiomyoma, 52 with asthma, 18 with colon adenomas, and 70 blood samples without any of mentioned diseases that was used as a control group. After the isolation of erythrocytes from blood samples, total extracted lipids were separated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) into non polar lipids and polar phospholipids. After the saponification of phospholipid fraction, the esterification process followed with boron trifluoride-methanol reagent. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition of the total red blood cell phospholipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). Additionally two fatty aldehyde dimethyl acetals (hexadecanal and octadecanal dimethyl acetals; 16:0 DMA and 18:0 DMA) derived from erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen phospholipids were also determined. The resulting fatty acid and plasmalogen linked fatty acid composition was evaluated by the principal component analysis (PCA). We demonstrated decreased levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in red blood cell membrane of patients with colon adenomas. Also, a large negative correlation was observed among all samples between the quantity of saturated acids and arachidonic (20:4n6) acid as well as saturated acids and adrenic (22:4n6) acid. In PCA score plot a group of female donors is distinguished mainly by the content of linoleic (18:2n6) acid; a small subgroup shows its concentration highly above the average value. At the same time, the same subgroup has both dimethyl acetals below the average concentrations. The study demonstrates feasibility of multivariate data analysis in discrimination of patients with different diseases according to fatty acid profile and suggests considerable differences in membrane fatty acid profiles in patients with various disease states.
Keywords: erythrocyte phospholipids, cell membrane, fatty acid profiles, differentiation, disease state, gas chromatography, principal component analysis
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1539; Downloads: 21
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3.
Passive earth pressure determination
Borut Macuh, Stanislav Škrabl, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: The validity of some limit state solutions, when strictly applied to the basic corresponding state theorem (Caquot, 1934), is limited and valid only for simpler limit states, where stress vectors are either perpendicular to the boundary surfaces or when the direction of stress eigenvalue trajectories in transformation are preserved (Michalowski, 2001). The theorem of corresponding states allows us, in some cases, to attain solutions belonging to the limit states for cohesive-friction materials with the transformation of the known boundary of elasto-plastic solutions of limit states for pure friction materials. We demonstrated that for the selected kinematically admissible model, in general cases of boundary stresses, the indirect application of the corresponding states theorem in modified form is permitted.To determine this, we applied the kinematic approach of limit state analysis and used the upper-bound theorem for determining passive earth pressures. The results of our analyses show that incautious application of the corresponding state theorem in its basic form and for general cases is in admissible because the results obtained can be correct only coincidentally, depending on the boundary conditions
Keywords: corresponding state, earth pressure, passive pressure, limit analysis, upper-bound
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 969; Downloads: 43
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4.
Vapor-liquid equilibrium of binary CO2-organic solvent systems (ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, para-xylene)
Željko Knez, Mojca Škerget, Ljiljana Ilić, Christoph Lütge, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: High pressure vapor-liquid phase equilibrium data (P-T-x-y) for the binary mixtures of organic solvent (ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene) with CO2 have been measured at temperatures 313.2, 333.2, 353.2 K and pressures from 1 to 14 MPa using a static-analytic method. For the systemsethanol-CO2 and tetrahydrofuran-CO2, the experimental data at 313.2 and333.2 K are in a good agreement with literature data. The experimental results have been correlated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state in combination with van der Waals one fluid mixing rule with two adjustable parameters.
Keywords: chemical processing, high pressure technology, carbon dioxide, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, xylene, vapor-liquid equilibrium, experimental data, PR equation of state
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1089; Downloads: 33
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5.
Crystal-structure and Mössbauer studies of Li[sub]1.746]Nd[sub]4.494FeO9[sub]9.493
Mihael Drofenik, Irena Ban, Darko Makovec, Darko Hanžel, Amalija Golobič, Ljubo Golič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The ▫$Li_1.746Nd_4.494FeO_9.493$▫ (LNF) ternary phase, located in the ▫$Li_2O$▫-rich part of the ▫$Li_2O-Nd_2O_3-Fe_2O_3$▫ system, crystallizes with a cubic unit cell of dimension and the space group Im3m. Refinement on F resulted in R=1.9%. The structure is comprised of a network of corners, edges and faces sharing the coordination polyhedra of neodymium. In between this skeleton the regular octahedra of oxygen-coordinated iron and trigonal prisms of lithium are located. The Mössbauer spectra revealed the presence of ▫$Fe^3+$▫, ▫$Fe^4+$▫ and ▫$Fe^5+$▫ ions distributed on two symmetry-independent lattice positions.
Keywords: crystal structure, ternary compounds, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, iron oxidation state, kristalna struktura, ternarne spojine, rentgenska difrakcija, Mössbauerjeva spektroskopija, rentgenska strukturna analiza
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1066; Downloads: 21
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6.
A strategy for MINLP synthesis of flexible and operable processes
Zorka Novak-Pintarič, Zdravko Kravanja, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a sequential two-stage strategy for the stochastic synthesis of chemical processes in which flexibility and static operability (the ability to adjust manipulated variables) are taken into account. In the first stage, the optimal flexible structure and optimal oversizing of the process units are determined in order to assure feasibility of design for a fixed degree of flexibility. In the second stage, the structural alternatives and additional manipulative variables are included in the mathematical model in order to introduce additional degrees of freedom for efficient control. The expected value of the objective function is approximated in both stages by a novel method, which relies on optimization at the central basic point (CBP). The latter is determined by a simple set-up procedure based on calculations of the objective functionćs conditional expectations for uncertain parameters. The feasibility is assured by simultaneous consideration of critical vertices. The important feature of the proposed stochastic model is that its size depends mainly on the number of design variables and not on the number of uncertain parameters. The strategy is illustrated by two examples for heat exchanger network synthesis.
Keywords: chemical processing, process synthesis, MINLP, mixed integer nonlinear programming, flexibility, operability, controllability, steady state model
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1460; Downloads: 30
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7.
Estimation of solid solubilities in supercritical carbon dioxide: Peng-Robinson adjustable binary parameters in the near critical region
Mojca Škerget, Zorka Novak-Pintarič, Željko Knez, Zdravko Kravanja, 2002, original scientific article

Abstract: The density dependence of the binary parameters of the Peng-Robinson equation of state in near the critical region was examined. Published solubility data of eight compounds in pure CO2 have been fitted to the Peng-Robinson equation in combination with one and two parameters van der Waals mixing rules and in combination with the three parameter density dependent mixing rule of Mohamed and Holder. A systematic study has been done to determine the influence of different terms in the mixing rules. In order to obtain density dependence, binary parameters were calculated for each isotherm at particular experimental point separately in the way to equalise experimental and calculated solubility data. The system was formulated as an equation-oriented model and solved by means of a nonlinear programming optimisation algorithm. For all compounds the binary interaction parameters thus obtained were found to vary strongly with pressure in the range from 75 bar to approximately 150 bar, i.e. near the critical end point (CEP) of the low temperature branch of the three phase solid-liquid-gas (SLG) curve. At higher pressures, the parameter is practically independent on pressure. In general, for the systems investigated, kij increases linearly with increasing density and reaches a constant value at higher densities in the range from 700 to 800 kg/m3, depending on the system under investigation.
Keywords: solid liquid equilibria, equation of state, mixing rules, binary parameters, near critical region, nonlinear programming, thermodynamic model, supercritical fluids, CO2, solubility
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1277; Downloads: 39
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8.
Influence of internal disorder on the superconducting state in the organic layered superconductor [kappa]-(BEDT-TTF)[sub]2Cu[N(CN)[sub]2]Br
Marko Pinterić, Silvija Tomić, Mladen Prester, Đuro Drobac, Kazumi Maki, 2002, original scientific article

Abstract: We report high-sensitivity AC susceptibility measurements of the penetration depth in the Meissner state of the layered organic superconductor ▫$kappa$▫-(BEDT-TTF)▫$_2$▫Cu[N(CN)▫$_2$▫]Br. We have studied nominally pure single crystals from the two different syntheses and employed controlled cooling procedures in order to minimize intrinsic remnant disorder at low temperatures associated with the glass transition, caused by ordering of the ethylene moieties in BEDT-TTF molecule at ▫$T_{text{G}}$▫ = 75°K. We find that the optimal cooling procedures (slow cooling of -0.2°K/h or annealing for 3 days in the region of ▫$T_{text{G}}$▫) needed to establish the ground state, depend critically on the sample origin indicating different relaxationtimes of terminal ethylene groups. We show that, in the ground state, the behavior observed for nominally pure single crystals from both syntheses is consistent with unconventional $d$-wave order parameter. The in-plane penetration depth ▫$lambda_{text{in}}(T)$▫ is strongly linear, whereas the out-of-plane component ▫$lambda_{text{out}}(T)$▫ varies as ▫$T^2$▫. In contrast, the behavior of single crystals with long relaxation times observed after slow (-0.2°K/h) cooling is as expected for a $d$-wave superconductor with impurities (textit{i.e.} ▫$lambda_{text{in}}(T) proptolambda_{text{out}}(T) propto T^2$▫) or might be also reasonably welldescribed by the ▫$s$▫-wave model. Our results might reconcile the contradictory findings previously reported by different authors.
Keywords: solid state physics, organic superconductors, magnetic measurements
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 776; Downloads: 16
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9.
Calculation of thermophysical and thermochemical properties during hydrocarbon combustion
Jurij Avsec, Franc Zgaga, Milan Marčič, 2002, original scientific article

Abstract: A mathematical model is presented for computing the chemical and thermophysical properties in the process of combustion of natural gas. To identify the parameters of state of combustion products, their composition hasto be known, which may be determined from chemical equilibrium. The computation is performed with the use of chemical potentials and statistical thermodynamics, featuring all important molecular contributions (translation, rotation, vibration, and intermolecular potential energy). A thermal equation of state with two virial terms is used. The real gas mixture is treated as consisting of four components: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and water. Virial coefficients are dependent on temperature and mole fractions of the real components. Mixed terms are taken into account. The caloric equation of state is based on statistical thermodynamics for an ideal gas. Corrections are made in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics and the thermal equation of state. As the whole computation is based on matrix algebra, increasing the number of components presents no problems. We tested our model in the high-pressure region (100 bar) and the low-pressure region (1 bar), in the temperature range 500 - 6000°K. Our model is compared with other analytical models presented in the literature and shows relatively good agreement. At the same time we tested the influence of real conditions on the chemical and thermophysical properties of combustion products.
Keywords: statistical thermodynamics, thermodynamical properties, combustion of natural gas, mathematical models, thermodynamic functions of state, equation of state, virial coefficients
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1105; Downloads: 25
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10.
An approach to consider the arterial residual stresses in modelling of a patient-specific artery
Janez Urevc, Miroslav Halilovič, Milan Brumen, Boris Štok, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: In this work, the residual stress state of a human common carotid artery is predicted using the so-called thermomecha- nical analogy approach. The purpose of the approach is to enable consistent mapping of residual stresses and the respec- tive configuration from a circular arterial segment to a patient-specific arterial geometry. This is achieved by applying proper volumetric dilatations to the actual arterial stress-free in vivo geometry, which makes use of the analogy that states that the bending stresses can be obtained on an equivalent manner by applying proper thermal dilatations. The common carotid artery data are obtained in vivo from a healthy 28-year-old man using non-invasive methods. The pre- dicted residual stresses of the common carotid artery are in good quantitative agreement with the data from prior work in this field. The approach is validated by predicting the common carotid artery zero-stress state configuration, where a sector-like (cut-open) state is obtained. With this approach, it is thus possible to predict the residual stresses as well as the configuration of patient-specific arterial geometry without the need to model its cut-open zero-stress configuration.
Keywords: patient-specific artery, common carotid artery, residual stresses, arterial zero-stress state, thermomechanics, finite element method
Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 277; Downloads: 63
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