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Self-organization of enzyme-catalyzed reactions studied by the maximum entropy production principle
Andrej Dobovišek, Marko Vitas, Tina Blaževič, Rene Markovič, Marko Marhl, Aleš Fajmut, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The self-organization of open reaction systems is closely related to specific mechanisms that allow the export of internally generated entropy from systems to their environment. According to the second law of thermodynamics, systems with effective entropy export to the environment are better internally organized. Therefore, they are in thermodynamic states with low entropy. In this context, we study how self-organization in enzymatic reactions depends on their kinetic reaction mechanisms. Enzymatic reactions in an open system are considered to operate in a non-equilibrium steady state, which is achieved by satisfying the principle of maximum entropy production (MEPP). The latter is a general theoretical framework for our theoretical analysis. Detailed theoretical studies and comparisons of the linear irreversible kinetic schemes of an enzyme reaction in two and three states are performed. In both cases, in the optimal and statistically most probable thermodynamic steady state, a diffusion-limited flux is predicted by MEPP. Several thermodynamic quantities and enzymatic kinetic parameters, such as the entropy production rate, the Shannon information entropy, reaction stability, sensitivity, and specificity constants, are predicted. Our results show that the optimal enzyme performance may strongly depend on the number of reaction steps when linear reaction mechanisms are considered. Simple reaction mechanisms with a smaller number of intermediate reaction steps could be better organized internally and could allow fast and stable catalysis. These could be features of the evolutionary mechanisms of highly specialized enzymes.
Keywords: enzymes, kinetic data analysis, steady state, self-organization, maximum entropy production
Published in DKUM: 08.05.2024; Views: 76; Downloads: 2
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Directions for the sustainability of innovative clustering in a country
Vito Bobek, Vladislav Streltsov, Tatjana Horvat, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents potential improvements through utilizing the cyclical nature of clusters by human capital, technology, policies, and management. A historical review of the formation and sustainable development of clusters in the US, Europe, Japan, China, and other regions is carried out to achieve this. The aim was to identify and assess the prominent occurrence cases, the central institutional actors, the indicators of their innovative activity, and the schematics of successful cluster management. The theory section covers current classification methods and typology of innovation-territorial economic associations. Consequently, a regression analysis model is produced to identify the potential dominant success factors in implementing the innovation policy of the most successful innovative clusters. Comments on the influence of these predictors on the competitiveness and level of innovative development of the 50 inspected countries follow. As a result of qualitative and quantitative analysis, an overview of the best world practice, the new vision, and its priorities are proposed to improve the efficiency at the level of management structures of innovation clusters.
Keywords: cluster, cluster policy, state policy, regression analysis, institutions, innovation, R&D
Published in DKUM: 09.04.2024; Views: 198; Downloads: 120
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General Features of Public Law - Slovenian Perspectives
Bojan Tičar, Maša Tičar, 2024, scientific monograph

Abstract: This book is intended is to be used as an aid in understanding general features of public law from Slovenian perspective. The book has three parts. The first chapter deals with the state, its essential elements,and the various types of states, taking into consideration a range of different criteria. The second chapter introduces the basic constituent parts of the law and the forms of legal order in which these parts are vertically and horizontally incorporated. The terms are sometimes simplified in order to bring law and an understanding of it closer to readers who are not professional lawyers.The third chapter is devoted to defining basic terms of administrative and civil service law. Administrative law consists primarily of the legal norms which regulate the foundations of the organisation of the state and local communities. The last part of this chapter is devoted to civil servants and public salery system.
Keywords: state, public law, administrative law, civil servants, public salaries
Published in DKUM: 21.02.2024; Views: 189; Downloads: 13
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PALANTIR : An NFV-Based Security-as-a-Service Approach for Automating Threat Mitigation
Maxime Compastié, Antonio López Martínez, Carolina Fernandez, Manuel Gil Pérez, Stylianos Tsarsitalidis, George Xylouris, Izidor Mlakar, Michail Alexandros Kourtis, Valentino Šafran, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Small and medium enterprises are significantly hampered by cyber-threats as they have inherently limited skills and financial capacities to anticipate, prevent, and handle security incidents. The EU-funded PALANTIR project aims at facilitating the outsourcing of the security supervision to external providers to relieve SMEs/MEs from this burden. However, good practices for the operation of SME/ME assets involve avoiding their exposure to external parties, which requires a tightly defined and timely enforced security policy when resources span across the cloud continuum and need interactions. This paper proposes an innovative architecture extending Network Function Virtualisation to externalise and automate threat mitigation and remediation in cloud, edge, and on-premises environments. Our contributions include an ontology for the decision-making process, a Fault-and-Breach-Management-based remediation policy model, a framework conducting remediation actions, and a set of deployment models adapted to the constraints of cloud, edge, and on-premises environment(s). Finally, we also detail an implementation prototype of the framework serving as evaluation material.
Keywords: Security-as-a-Service, security orchestration, policy-driven management, virtual network functions, finite state machines, constraints programming
Published in DKUM: 06.02.2024; Views: 198; Downloads: 4
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Comparative analysis of batteries for photovoltaic systems : bachelor's thesis
Kristina Gočanin, 2023, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Renewable energies represent unlimited power sources that are significantly reducing greenhouse emissions. The possibilities and advantages of abundantly available solar energy are immense. However, some challenges are preventing solar energy from reaching its full potential regarding its efficiency and energy storage. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis is on electrochemical storage systems. The aim is to compare the currently leading technology – Li-ion battery to the most recent breakthrough in storage systems – the solid-state battery. The thesis includes a comparative analysis of the mentioned technologies, as well as the theoretical part that introduces solar energy and photovoltaic systems with their main components.
Keywords: photovoltaic system, energy storage, analysis, Li-ion battery, solid-state battery
Published in DKUM: 30.01.2024; Views: 249; Downloads: 24
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Method for Determining Battery Health
Slavko Brečko, Dalibor Igrec, Aleš Breznik, Amor Chowdhury, Miran Rodič, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This paper presents a method for automatic state of health estimation for lithium ion batteries. A pulse method for determining battery characteristics using a specially developed electronic measuring device is presented. Measurement results show characteristics of several measured batteries exhibiting different states of health with estimation possible even with a protection circuit present on the battery.
Keywords: Li-ion, state of health, battery testing, measurement circuit, estimation method
Published in DKUM: 04.12.2023; Views: 242; Downloads: 12
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Comparative analysis of synchronous motors
Vasilija Sarac, Goce Stefanov, Dragan Minovski, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper compares the parameters, steady-state and transient characteristics of two different types of synchronous motors (SM) – a motor with surface mounted magnets on the rotor, and a motor with embedded magnets and squirrel cage winding, widely known as a line-start synchronous motor. The comparison is based on results obtained from analytical, numerical and transient models of both motors for the same output power of the motors. The models for obtaining transient characteristics allow comparison of acceleration of both motors taking into consideration that the line-start SM is a self-starting motor while the SM with surface magnets is always started with the aid of a PWM inverter. The results obtained from the analytical, numerical and transient models of the motors should assist in choosing the most cost-effective solution in terms of the type of the motor for the appropriate application.
Keywords: FEM models, synchronous motors, steady-state characteristics, transient characteristics
Published in DKUM: 13.11.2023; Views: 327; Downloads: 3
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Analysis of the influence of parameters when charging and discharging a capacitor using differential equations
Matic Krašovic, Peter Virtič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Two different electrical circuits were analysed in this paper. The first was an RC circuit consisting of a resistor R, a capacitor C, and a DC voltage u, while the second was an RLC circuit consisting of a resistor R, a capacitor C, a DC voltage u and an inductor L. Both circuits were described using the state space mathematical model and, on this basis, graphs for charging and discharging a capacitor were plotted. Both circuits were described using differential equations for electrical current through a capacitor and voltage over a capacitor. Finally, different values of the R (resistance), L (inductance) and C (capacitance) parameters were taken, and graphs were plotted for voltage over capacitor. The purpose of the study was to explore how different values of parameters influence capacitor charging and discharging.
Keywords: RC circuit, RLC circuit, state space, transfer function, differential equations, parameters R, L, C, damping
Published in DKUM: 30.10.2023; Views: 186; Downloads: 8
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The possibility of using self-defence against non-state actors : magistrsko delo
Patricija Glavica, 2023, master's thesis

Abstract: This master’s thesis systematically and in-depth examines the notion of self-defence, primarily through the ratione personae aspect and thus focuses on the possibility of its use against non-state actors. While the use of self-defence against non-state actors is not a new phenomenon in international law, it is nonetheless taking on new dimensions, particularly in the context of the fight against terrorism. The right to self-defence is one of the exceptions to the jus cogens prohibition of the use of force. It is an ‘inherent’ right, codified in Article 51 of the UN Charter and forming part of customary international law. According to the primary understanding, the right to self-defence had a State-centric approach, which was also continuously affirmed in the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice. Consequently, a State could only use self-defence against a non-state actor if its actions were imputable to another State in whose territory defensive force was being used. However, especially after the 9/11 attack there have been tendencies to broaden the right to self-defence and allow its use even if the actions by a non-state actor are not attributable to a State under the current attributability standards. Due to the complexity of the right to self-defence it requires careful examination through different aspects and sources of international law. It can be observed that the opinions regarding the expansion of the right to self-defence are very different. Firstly, scholars have widely divergent views regarding the correct interpretation of Article 51 of the UN Charter under the rules of the VCLT. Secondly, in its previous judgements, the International Court of Justice has maintained the State-centric approach, while potentially allowing room for a more expansive approach to self-defence. Thirdly, States have since the 9/11 attack started to regularly invoke the right to self-defence when using extraterritorial force against non-state actors. However, the reactions of States relating to such use of force and the opinions of scholars regarding the implications of such State practice, are equivocal. Taking everything into consideration this master’s thesis concludes that neither Article 51 of the UN Charter nor customary international law allow the use of self-defence against non-state actors, whose actions are not attributable to a State. Although the right to self-defence is undoubtedly expanding, its scope is not yet fully crystallized.
Keywords: the right to self-defence, non-state actors, the prohibition of the use of force, terrorism, Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, extraterritorial use of force, jus ad bellum, Nicaragua case, attributability
Published in DKUM: 08.09.2023; Views: 609; Downloads: 105
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Prototype of integrated circuits testing device : magistrsko delo
Luka Kačič, 2023, master's thesis

Abstract: The field of electronics is constantly evolving, and this master's thesis aims to explore the latest developments and investigate their potential impact on various applications. The research covers topics such as semiconductor devices, integrated circuits, communication systems, and digital signal processing. Based on extensive literature review, theoretical analysis, and experimental investigations, the thesis provides valuable insights into the latest trends in electronics and testing, especially in the automotive industry. The project's focus is on the development of a prototype testing device for integrated circuits in cooperation with company NXP Semiconductors Austria GmbH & Co KG. The device needs to effectively find failures in the investigated integrated circuit's digital section and offer powerful forcing and measuring options to verify the analog parameters. The solution developed includes a configurable Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) master node communication block and a Graphical User Interface (GUI). Effective communication is essential for any electronic system, and the importance of communication continues to grow with technology advances. I have demonstrated the versatility of LabVIEW as a programming tool for FPGAs and IC testing, providing an effective and user-friendly environment for electronics engineers to develop and test. By enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of IC testing, the work can help manufacturers and engineers accelerate their testing processes, reduce costs, and improve product quality. I have gained a deeper understanding of the challenges involved in electronics testing and the importance of efficient testing processes. The research makes a meaningful contribution to the field of electronics engineering and has the potential to shape the future of electronics testing and improve the reliability and performance of electronic devices.
Keywords: state machine, SPI, FPGA, LabVIEW
Published in DKUM: 30.03.2023; Views: 723; Downloads: 0

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