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Cross-cultural insight into the association between religiousness and authoritarianism
Sergej Flere, Rudi Klanjšek, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The current study investigated the possible existence of a relationship between authoritarianism and religiousness and the possible strength of this potential relationship. The study involved samples from four cultural environments known to differ substantially in terms of religious salience and content: Slovenia (predominantly Catholic), Serbia (predominantly Eastern Orthodox), Bosnia and Herzegovina (predominantly Muslim), and the United States (predominantly Protestant). Religiousness was assessed by way of religious orientation (including intrinsic and extrinsic orientation) as proposed by Allport (1950), whereas authoritarianism was tapped by a modified Lane scale (1955). Results from zero-order correlations indicated a strong and positive association between authoritarianism and all types of religious orientation, regardless of the sample analyzed. Residualizing the main study constructs by demographic variables did not alter the results. The association changed only when each dimension of religious orientation was controlled for the effect of other dimensions. Results did not lend support to the hypothesis that authoritarianism is more strongly linked to those who are more extrinsically oriented.
Keywords: sociology of religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, US protestantism
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 749; Downloads: 35
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4.
Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah). The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.
Keywords: sociology of religion, civil religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, cross-cultural analyses, anxiety
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 703; Downloads: 64
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5.
Questioning the need for a special methodology for the study of Eastern Orthodoxy
Sergej Flere, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: The particular differences of Eastern Orthodoxy alleged by Tomka (2006) to demand a "special research methodology" are tested on a sample of the Serbian Orthodox, comparing them to Slovenian Catholics and American Protestants. The author found no important differences in the direction suggested by Tomka, with respect to the relation between traditionalism and religiosity, to religious experience, to civil religion, to quest religiosity, to religious deeds/sacrifices (consequential religiosity), either structurally or as to magnitude. The exception is to be found in a somewhat stronger link between traditionalism and religiosity among the Orthodox, but the level of traditionalism among this group is lower than in the American Protestant case. Most of the differences found between the groups are attributable to higher magnitudes of religiosity in the American Protestant sample, but a clear peculiarity emerged indicating a higher presence of guilt religiosity in the Serbian Orthodox sample. The concept of God in this environment is that of a punishing God, along with a predominance of extrinsic psychological religiosity, leading to a psychologically disaffected (negative affect) situation.
Keywords: sociology of religion, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, religiosity, religious experiences, extrinsic orientation, quest religiosity, consequentialiy
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 737; Downloads: 25
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6.
A test of Self-Control Theory across different socioeconomic strata
Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Rudi Klanjšek, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: The current investigation examined the relationships between family processes, self-control, and adolescent deviance in a sample of N = 3,764 Swiss male and female youth pursuing an apprenticeship (lower SES) or attending a Gymnasium/teacher's college (higher SES). Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of family processes, self-control, and deviant behaviors. Results indicated that self-control predicted adolescent deviance in both groups, and that direct and indirect effects existed in the relationships between family processes, self-control, and deviance. Findings provided evidence of comparatively few differences in the observed associations by SES, though the magnitude of the positive effect by low self-control on deviance was more modest in male apprentices as compared to non-apprentices. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications for Self-Control Theory.
Keywords: sociology, adolescents, deviations, family, self-control, self-control theory, socioeconomic strata
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 624; Downloads: 26
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7.
Is intrinsic religious orientation a culturally specific American Protestant concept? : the fusion of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among non-Protestants
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The relationship between intrinsic and personal extrinsic religious orientation as suggested by Gorsuch and McPherson is studied within four denominational samples of university students in four different cultural environments. Results show that intrinsic and extrinsic personal religious orientation form two separate dimensions only within the American Protestant sample. In three different European religious environments (one Eastern Orthodox, one Islamic, and one Roman Catholic), all extrinsic personal and intrinsic items can be combined into a single dimension. It is speculated that the intrinsic orientation may be culturally tied to Protestantism.
Keywords: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 784; Downloads: 12
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8.
Gender and religious orientation
Sergej Flere, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Gender has been proven to be a substantial indicator of differences with respect to religiosity within Christianity. Females are always more frequentlyand intensively religious in comparison to males (Francis, 1997). The question of whether this holds for other religions remains unanswered. In this study we focus on university students in Catholic, Christian Orthodox andMuslim environments of Central Europe and in an American, predominantly Protestant environment. Religiosity is studied by differentiating between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (Allport and Ross, 1967). If it were foundthat females are more social-extrinsic religious, one couldspeak of a sociological, instrumental and situational religiosity among females. On the contrary, one is closer to speaking of an immanent difference between the genders. Sociological (with the exception of socialization) and Freudian explanations are not confirmed. Psychological explanations, which include anxiety, authoritarianism and femininity (Bem,1981) are good at explaining thedifferences in religiosity between the genders.
Keywords: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation, gender differences, gender
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 826; Downloads: 25
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9.
Fragmented Romanian sociology: growth and structure of the collaboration network
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, Lazǎr Vlǎsceanu, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Structural patterns in collaboration networks are essential for understanding how new ideas, research practices, innovation or cooperation circulate and develop within academic communities and between and within university departments. In our research, we explore and investigate the structure of the collaboration network formed by the academics working full-time within all the 17 sociology departments across Romania. We show that the collaboration network is sparse and fragmented, and that it constitutes an environment that does not promote the circulation of new ideas and innovation within the field. Although recent years have witnessed an increase in the productivity of Romanian sociologists, there is still ample room for improvement in terms of the interaction infrastructure that ought to link individuals together so that they could maximize their potentials. We also fail to discern evidence in favor of the Matthew effect governing the growth of the network, which suggests scientific success and productivity are not rewarded. Instead, the structural properties of the collaboration network are partly those of a core-periphery network, where the spread of innovation and change can be explained by structural equivalence rather than by interpersonal influence models. We also provide support for the idea that, within the observed network, collaboration is the product of homophily rather than prestige effects. Further research on the subject based on data from other countries in the region is needed to place our results in a comparative framework, in particular to discern whether the behavior of the Romanian sociologist community is unique or rather common.
Keywords: collaboration network, small-world network, community structure, sociology, network science
Published: 19.06.2017; Views: 199; Downloads: 119
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10.
Homophily in coauthorship networks of East European sociologists
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: We study to what degree and how homophily and network properties affect individual citation counts of researchers in the sociology departments of three East European countries, namely Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. We built first-order personal coauthorship networks out of the Web of Science publication records. Each sociologist is assigned as a focal node or ego, while her coauthors are alters. We analyze the data using structural measurements methods, hierarchical regression models, and we make visualizations based on the clustered graph technique. For all three populations, our results indicate that the mean score of the citations of alters substantially predicts the citation counts of egos. In particular, citation similarity increases the chances for coauthorship ties. Evidence for the impact of network properties on the citation levels of egos is mixed. For Poland, normalized ego-betweenness shows a negative effect on citation counts, while network density displays a positive one. For Romania and Slovenia, network characteristics have only a minor impact. Even if the visual summarization of the personal networks uncovers a wide palette of coauthorship patterns, homophily appears to be pervasive. These results are relevant for domestic policy makers who aim to improve the aggregated research performance in East European countries.
Keywords: social network, sociology, homophily, physics of social systems
Published: 23.06.2017; Views: 157; Downloads: 125
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