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1.
Corporate governance and corporate social responsibility synergies
Jelena Nikolić, Dejana Zlatanović, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Respecting the importance of corporate governance (CG), particularly various corporate governance mechanisms for improving corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, the paper highlights relevant CG–CSR synergies from the perspective of systems thinking. The paper further aims to demonstrate the ways in which selected systems methodologies can support CG–CSR synergies. Accordingly, we selected appropriate systems methodologies, such as dialectical systems theory, soft systems methodology, and system dynamics. We defined the dialectical system, consisting of essential corporate governance mechanisms, which contribute to CSR; we also identified the key stakeholders and their perceptions of CG–CSR relations through CATWOE analysis; thus, the appropriate root definition and conceptual model, including the activities that are relevant for CG–CSR relations, were developed. Developed systemic framework provided a relevant methodological support to highlight the various issues of corporate governance, such as institutional framework, market for corporate control, ownership structure, board structure, and their contribution to CSR.
Keywords: corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, CG–CSR synergies, systemic approach, combined use of selected systems methodologies
Published: 10.10.2018; Views: 700; Downloads: 89
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2.
Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks
Federico Battiston, Matjaž Perc, Vito Latora, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.
Keywords: cooperation, public goods, networks, physics of social systems
Published: 04.12.2017; Views: 498; Downloads: 297
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3.
Knowledge-cum-values management belongs to the way out from global crisis
Zdenka Ženko, Matjaž Mulej, Vojko Potočan, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: The contemporary world-wide socio-economic crisis tends to escalate and contribute to the global crisis. Limitation of education to one-sided ‘knowledge management’ rather than socially responsible ‘knowledge-cum-values-management’ is one of the crisis’s causes. Objectives: The limitations to current knowledge management should be analyzed with systemic thinking. Which values are prevailing in it now and which values will enable the survival of humankind? Methods/Approach: In the first part, literature is reviewed for analysis and conceptual generalization of knowledge management. The theoretical framework based on ‘system theory’, ‘knowledge management’ and ‘knowledge-cum-values management’, and ‘values of social responsibility’ is introduced. In the second part a new theoretical concept “A potential methodological support for human transition from one-sided to requisitely holistic behavior via social responsibility” is discussed. Results: Knowledge management is a too narrow concept, it tends to leave aside human values, an impact on the natural environment, and extremely growing differences. Humankind needs consideration of responsibility, interdependence and holism in order to minimize detrimental impact of individual behaviour on society, i.e. humans and nature. Conclusions: The research indicates that individuals should attain more requisite holism, and should not be irrational by trying to attain only rationalism in human decision-making and action.
Keywords: knowledge-cum-values management, Dialectical Systems Theory, corporate social responsibility
Published: 31.08.2017; Views: 593; Downloads: 287
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4.
Correlation of positive and negative reciprocity fails to confer an evolutionary advantage: phase transitions to elementary strategies
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavioris therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.
Keywords: public goods, punishment, reward, evolutionary games, collective phenomena, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Published: 03.08.2017; Views: 510; Downloads: 265
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5.
HRM model in tourism, based on Dialectical systems theory
Simona Šarotar Žižek, Sonja Treven, Matjaž Mulej, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: A human resources management (HRM) model integrating trends in HRM with trends in tourism into a dialectical system by the Dialectical Systems Theory (DST). HRM strategy, integrated within the tourism organization´s (TO´S) strategy is implemented through functional strategies helping their users to achieve a requisitely holistic (RH) HRM strategy replacing the prevailing one-sided ones. TO´S strategy covers: employees (1) planning, (2) acquisition and selection, (3) development and training, (4) diversity management, (5) teamwork and creativity, (6) motivation and rewarding, (7) stress reduction and health, (8) relationships, (9) personal holism, (10) well-being, (11) work and results assessment; etc. Everyone matters; their synergy is crucial. An innovated HRM model for TOs, which applies employees´, organizations´ RH and integrates new knowledge about HRM. HRM belongs to central managers´ tools. Their HRM must be adapted for TOs, where employees are crucial.
Keywords: tourism, human resources management, well-being, Dialectical Systems Theory, social responsibility, organizational cybernetics
Published: 13.07.2017; Views: 611; Downloads: 64
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6.
Self-organization towards optimally interdependent networks by means of coevolution
Zhen Wang, Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Coevolution between strategy and network structure is established as a means to arrive at the optimal conditions needed to resolve social dilemmas. Yet recent research has highlighted that the interdependence between networks may be just as important as the structure of an individual network. We therefore introduce the coevolution of strategy and network interdependence to see whether this can give rise to elevated levels of cooperation in the prisonerʼs dilemma game. We show that the interdependence between networks self-organizes so as to yield optimal conditions for the evolution of cooperation. Even under extremely adverse conditions, cooperators can prevail where on isolated networks they would perish. This is due to the spontaneous emergence of a two-class society, with only the upper class being allowed to control and take advantage of the interdependence. Spatial patterns reveal that cooperators, once arriving at the upper class, are much more competent than defectors in sustaining compact clusters of followers. Indeed, the asymmetric exploitation of interdependence confers to them a strong evolutionary advantage that may resolve even the toughest of social dilemmas.
Keywords: coevolution, cooperation, interdependent networks, evolutionary games, collective phenomena, self-organization, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Published: 03.07.2017; Views: 631; Downloads: 297
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7.
Self-organization of punishment in structured populations
Matjaž Perc, Attila Szolnoki, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Cooperation is crucial for the remarkable evolutionary success of the human species. Not surprisingly, some individuals are willing to bear additional costs in order to punish defectors. Current models assume that, once set, the fine and cost of punishment do not change over time. Here we show that relaxing this assumption by allowing players to adapt their sanctioning efforts in dependence on the success of cooperation can explain both the spontaneous emergence of punishment and its ability to deter defectors and those unwilling to punish them with globally negligible investments. By means of phase diagrams and the analysis of emerging spatial patterns, we demonstrate that adaptive punishment promotes public cooperation through the invigoration of spatial reciprocity, the prevention of the emergence of cyclic dominance, or the provision of competitive advantages to those that sanction antisocial behavior. The results presented indicate that the process of self-organization significantly elevates the effectiveness of punishment, and they reveal new mechanisms by means of which this fascinating and widespread social behavior could have evolved.
Keywords: cooperation, public goods, punishment, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Published: 03.07.2017; Views: 594; Downloads: 326
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8.
Punish, but not too hard: how costly punishment spreads in the spatial public goods game
Dirk Helbing, Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, György Szabó, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games where, besides the classical strategies of cooperation (C) and defection (D), we consider punishing cooperators (PC) or punishing defectors (PD) as an additional strategy. Using a minimalist modeling approach, our goal is to separately clarify and identify the consequences of the two punishing strategies. Since punishment is costly, punishing strategies lose the evolutionary competition in case of well-mixed interactions. When spatial interactions are taken into account, however, the outcome can be strikingly different, and cooperation may spread. The underlying mechanism depends on the character of the punishment strategy. In the case of cooperating punishers,increasing the fine results in a rising cooperation level. In contrast, in the presence of the PD strategy, the phase diagram exhibits a reentrant transition as the fine is increased. Accordingly, the level of cooperation shows a non-monotonous dependence on the fine. Remarkably, punishing strategies can spread in both cases, but based on largely different mechanisms, which depend on the cooperativeness (or not) of punishers.
Keywords: evolutionary game theory, public goods, spatial games, punishment, social systems, moral
Published: 03.07.2017; Views: 784; Downloads: 305
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9.
Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.
Keywords: cooperation, information, social dilemma, public goods, interdependent networks, statistical physics of social systems
Published: 03.07.2017; Views: 556; Downloads: 292
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10.
Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.
Keywords: cooperation, public goods, reward, punishment, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Published: 30.06.2017; Views: 883; Downloads: 321
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