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Depression, anxiety, stress, and coping mechanisms among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder
Ajda Demšar, Karin Bakračevič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of stress, anxiety, and depression among Slovenian parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and their coping mechanisms. The study included 42 parents of children with ASD who were enrolled at a specialised clinic for children with hearing and speech difficulties. We used the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory, and a demographic questionnaire which included questions on satisfaction with life and social support received. The respondents reported no clinically elevated levels of stress, depression or anxiety. However, the mothers reported more stress and anxiety related symptoms then did the fathers. The results showed that coping strategies of positive reinterpretation and growth were positively correlated to higher perceived social support and greater satisfaction with life, and were negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Perceived social support was highly negatively correlated with anxiety. Strategies of acceptance were used significantly more often by individuals with a higher level of education.
Keywords: anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, stress coping, parents, social support
Published in DKUM: 31.05.2024; Views: 101; Downloads: 1
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Social reappraisal of emotions is linked with the social presence effect in the default mode network
Xiyao Xie, Teresa Bertram, Saša Zorjan, Marina Horvat, Christian Sorg, Satja Mulej Bratec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Social reappraisal, during which one person deliberately tries to regulate another’s emotions, is a powerful cognitive form of social emotion regulation, crucial for both daily life and psychotherapy. The neural underpinnings of social reappraisal include activity in the default mode network (DMN), but it is unclear how social processes influence the DMN and thereby social reappraisal functioning. We tested whether the mere presence of a supportive social regulator had an effect on the DMN during rest, and whether this effect in the DMN was linked with social reappraisal-related neural activations and effectiveness during negative emotions. Methods: A two-part fMRI experiment was performed, with a psychotherapist as the social regulator, involving two resting state (social, non-social) and two task-related (social reappraisal, social no-reappraisal) conditions. Results: The psychotherapist’s presence enhanced intrinsic functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) within the anterior medial DMN, with the effect positively related to participants’ trust in psychotherapists. Secondly, the social presence-induced change in the dACC was related with (a) the social reappraisal-related activation in the bilateral dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporoparietal junction and (b) social reappraisal success, with the latter relationship moderated by trust in psychotherapists. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that a psychotherapist’s supportive presence can change anterior medial DMN’s intrinsic connectivity even in the absence of stimuli and that this DMN change during rest is linked with social reappraisal functioning during negative emotions. Data suggest that trust-dependent social presence effects on DMN states are relevant for social reappraisal—an idea important for daily-life and psychotherapy-related emotion regulation.
Keywords: social reappraisal, social support, social emotion regulation, social presence, default mode network, interpersonal trust, anterior cingulate
Published in DKUM: 18.04.2024; Views: 289; Downloads: 241
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The KIDSCREEN-27 scale: translation and validation study of the Slovenian version
Leona Cilar Budler, Majda Pajnkihar, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Owen Barr, Gregor Štiglic, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: There are many methods available for measuring social support and quality of life (QoL) of adolescents, of these, the KIDSCREEN tools are most widely used. Thus, we aimed to translate and validate the KIDSCREEN-27 scale for the usage among adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years old in Slovenia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2852 adolescents in primary and secondary school from November 2019 to January 2020 in Slovenia. 6-steps method of validation was used to test psychometric properties of the KIDSCREEN-27 scale. We checked descriptive statistics, performed a Mokken scale analysis, parametric item response theory, factor analysis, classical test theory and total (sub)scale scores. Results: All five subscales of the KIDSCREEN-27 formed a unidimensional scale with good homogeneity and reliability. The confirmatory factor analysis showed poor fit in user model versus baseline model metrics (CFI = 0.847; TLI = 0.862) and good fit in root mean square error (RMSEA = 0.072; p(χ2) < 0.001). A scale reliability was calculated using Cronbach's α (0.93), beta (0.86), G6 (0.95) and omega (0.93). Conclusions: The questionnaire showed average psychometric properties and can be used among adolescents in Slovenia to find out about their quality of life. Further research is needed to explore why fit in user model metrics is poor.
Keywords: social support, adolescent, psychometrics, factor analysis, quality of life
Published in DKUM: 23.08.2023; Views: 263; Downloads: 22
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Nursing support in facilitating mental well-being of adolescents
Leona Cilar Budler, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Background: Mental well-being is a state in which an individual acts positively, feels good, copes with the daily stressors and contributes to his/her community. Adolescents are a population who experience the various stressors brought on by growing up. The purpose of the doctoral dissertation is to determine the mental well-being of adolescents in correlation with the support of family, friends, teachers, and nurses. Methods: The research was based on the paradigm of pragmatism which supports the usage of quantitative and qualitative approaches using mixed methods. The quantitative part of the research included 2 972 adolescents. The survey method was used, descriptive and inferential statistics and presentation of the results were done with the help of tables, charts and figures. In the qualitative part of the research, data were collected using the interview method. Interviews were conducted with 5 focus groups involving 16 adolescents, 8 parents, 6 teachers, 3 legislators, and 6 nurses. The data were analysed following the steps of Corbin & Strauss (2008). Results: The mental well-being of adolescents is positively related (r = 0.624) to their social support. The mental well-being (r = -0.286) and social support (r = -0.239) of adolescents declines with age. Adolescents are of the opinion that the role of the nurse is to talk to them, help them, advise them, and explain difficulties that bother them. The mental well-being of adolescents is related to their interaction and interpersonal relations with parents, friends, and teachers. In ensuring the mental well-being of adolescents, we must consider the model multidimensional well-being. The Model of Interpersonal Relationships is proposed, which is formed based on the results of quantitative and qualitative part of the research and taking into account the concepts of the Theory of Interpersonal Relationships (Peplau, 1952) and the model of Multidimensional Well-being (Sarriera & Bedin, 2017). Discussion: Mental well-being is an important and relatively new concept in nursing. Adolescents’ mental well-being is closely linked to interpersonal relationships and a safe environment in which they can express themselves. Adolescents and parents do not obtain the necessary professional help in a timely manner. There is also a need for additional education on the mental well-being of adolescents among adolescents, parents, teachers, and nurses. Conclusion: Interpersonal relationships between adolescents, family, friends, teachers, and nurses are of major importance for ensuring mental well-being. There is a need for further research to improve the mental well-being of adolescents worldwide.
Keywords: youth, mental health, quality of life, social support, nursing
Published in DKUM: 12.09.2022; Views: 782; Downloads: 223
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How to strengthen employee engagement among Slovenian criminal investigators?
David Smolej, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: In terms of providing security, employee engagement may be defined as an important contribution by individual criminal investigators or their physical, cognitive and emotional dedication to their work. Employee engagement positively correlates with one’s work, as reflected in the dedication, absorption, and psychological state accompanied by personal energy invested in the work. A fundamental question for the criminal investigation police thus arises of how to achieve maximum engagement and commitment in police work, which in turn will contribute to greater security in Slovenia. Design/Methods/Approach: The article is based on empirical research conducted among 160 Slovenian criminal investigators. We used Gallup’s Q12 Employee Engagement Survey to measure employee engagement. Findings: The research encompassing 160 Slovenian criminal investigators shows that most criminal investigators are disengaged. The research also reveals that employee engagement is statistically significantly correlated with self-efficacy, social undermining by one’s supervisor, social support by one’s supervisor and colleagues, as well as cynicism. To raise employee engagement among the Slovenian criminal investigators, we propose several measures affecting the conduct of the police, labour legal matters, operational issues and the leadership. Research Limitations / Implications: The first limitation is social desirability bias. The second limitation is a labour strike that was underway while we were collecting the data from the police officers. Practical Implications: The proposed actions should raise the level of employee engagement of Slovenian criminal investigators, while also enhancing the police service’s reliability. Originality/Value: This is the first paper to research employee engagement among Slovenian criminal investigators.
Keywords: employee engagement, criminal investigators, cynicism, self-efficacy, social undermining, social support
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2020; Views: 990; Downloads: 54
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