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1.
Reactive sintering of $MnZn$ ferrites
Tomaž Kosmač, Mihael Drofenik, 2001, original scientific article

Abstract: Reaction-formed $MnZn$ ferrite was prepared and the decrease in shrinkage after sintering due to the volume expansion accompanying iron oxidation was studied. Green compacts consisting of the milled raw oxides $Fe_2O_3$, $Mn_3O_4$, $ZnO$ and metallic iron powder were sintered at 1350 °C in air. During the first hold at 800 °C, $Fe$ was oxidized to $\alpha-Fe_2O_3$ and $Zn$ ferrite was formed. Above 1300 °C the reaction bonding was completed and $MnZn$ ferrite, exhibiting a relatively low shrinkage, was formed. The chemical reactions involved during reaction bonding were associated with a volume expansion and porosity formation, compensating for the shrinkage on sintering. Intensive milling decreases the porosity after sintering but induces the oxidation of iron, and partially removes the shrinkage compensation caused by the presence of metallic iron.
Keywords: reaction-forming, $MnZn$ ferrite, inorganic technology, ferrite ceramics, reaction bonded ceramics, sintering, iron oxides, iron
Published: 25.08.2017; Views: 299; Downloads: 39
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2.
DSC/TG of Al-based alloyed powders for p/m applications
Borivoj Šuštaršič, Jože Medved, Srečko Glodež, Marko Šori, Albert Korošec, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Al-based alloyed powders, appropriate for the sintering procedure (powder metallurgy, P/M) contain the alloying elements with a high solid solubility in Al, enabling reaction and liquid-phase sintering. They are surface oxidised because of a high affinity of Al to oxygen. Besides, this type of powders contains a polymeric lubricant (wax), which reduces the friction on die walls during automatic die compaction into the final compact shape of a product. This lubricant has to be removed slowly during the first stage of sintering in order to prevent deformations and cracking of the product. Consequently, its sintering is very complex. Generally, these powders are sintered in pure nitrogen with a low dew point. The optimum sintering conditions are generally determined on the basis of light and scanning electron microscopy. The investigation can also be completed very successively with differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetry. The first one allows an insight into the endo- and exothermic reactions, taking place during the heating and cooling of a compacted metal powder, and the second one allows an insight into the processes, connected with the mass loss (a reduction, a lubricant removal, etc.) or mass increase (an oxidation). The DSC/TG of three commercial Al-based alloyed powders was performed in the frame of our investigations. The results were compared with the theoretical thermodynamic-based calculations and the optimum sintering conditions were proposed.
Keywords: aluminium powders, sintering, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetry
Published: 15.03.2017; Views: 402; Downloads: 37
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3.
The influence of the morphology of iron powder particles on their compaction in an automatic die
Borivoj Šuštaršič, Matjaž Godec, Črtomir Donik, Irena Paulin, Srečko Glodež, Marko Šori, Milan Ratej, Nada Javornik, 2015, professional article

Abstract: Fe- and steel-based powder metallurgy (P/M) products, such as steel gears, spurs, locking mechanisms, porous filters, sliding bearings and bushes, as well as other machine parts and structural elements, are mainly produced with the so-called conventional sintering technology. It is the most efficient technology for the mass production of small, complex, functional and structural parts. Therefore, it is the most convenient and popular among all of the P/M technologies. The most important end-user of sintered parts is the automotive industry. However, small, complex, sintered parts can also be frequently used in the furniture and household industries, precise mechanics, articles for recreation and sports. A fine, iron-based powder mixture or prealloyed powder is first automatically uniaxial-die compacted (ADC) into the final shape of the product with a mechanical or hydraulic press and then sintered in a protective atmosphere at approximately 1100 °C. The metal powder mixture must have the appropriate engineering properties given by the chemistry and particle morphology, enabling a fast and reliable die-compaction process. The most important are a high tap density, a good powder flowability and a low compressibility. All this gives the green compacts an appropriate final shape with a smooth surface, a relatively high and uniform green density, as well as a green strength without internal flaws and cracks. In the case of very small two-or-more-heights products, for example, spur gears with a low module, it is very difficult to obtain a uniform green density at acceptable compaction pressures. Often small cracks are formed at height crossings and big differences in the green density appear in smaller or thinner regions. In the frame of our investigation we analysed the influence of the selected prealloyed commercial iron powder’s morphology and its technological properties on automatic die compaction, as well as the sintering process in the case of small two-level sintered gear dimensions of 5/40–7/10×7mm with module m = 0.5. The original iron powder was sieved and the finest powder particle fraction (< 45 µm) was compared with the original powder mixture considering ADC and sintering process. It was found that the selection of the finer powder mixture could not contribute to the improvement in the overall ADC process, as well as a better green compact. In the present paper the results of our investigations are presented and the reasons why a finer powder mixture cannot contribute much to an improvement of the conventional sintering process.
Keywords: Fe-based alloy powders, particles, morphology, microstructure, automatic die compaction, sintering
Published: 27.03.2017; Views: 404; Downloads: 218
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4.
Experimental and numerical evaluation of the mechanical behavior of strongly anisotropic light-weight metallic fiber structures under static and dynamic compressive loading
Olaf Andersen, Matej Vesenjak, Thomas Fiedler, Jehring, Lovre Krstulović-Opara, original scientific article

Abstract: Rigid metallic fiber structures made from a variety of different metals and alloys have been investigated mainly with regard to their functional properties such as heat transfer, pressure drop, or filtration characteristics. With the recent advent of aluminum and magnesium-based fiber structures, the application of such structures in light-weight crash absorbers has become conceivable. The present paper therefore elucidates the mechanical behavior of rigid sintered fiber structures under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Special attention is paid to the strongly anisotropic properties observed for different directions of loading in relation to the main fiber orientation. Basically, the structures show an orthotropic behavior; however, a finite thickness of the fiber slabs results in moderate deviations from a purely orthotropic behavior. The morphology of the tested specimens is examined by computed tomography, and experimental results for different directions of loading as well as different relative densities are presented. Numerical calculations were carried out using real structural data derived from the computed tomography data. Depending on the direction of loading, the fiber structures show a distinctively different deformation behavior both experimentally and numerically. Based on these results, the prevalent modes of deformation are discussed and a first comparison with an established polymer foam and an assessment of the applicability of aluminum fiber structures in crash protection devices is attempted.
Keywords: aluminum fiber, fiber structure, orthotropy, sintering, compression, static loading, dynamic loading, energy absorption, numerical simulation
Published: 21.06.2017; Views: 306; Downloads: 183
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