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1.
Criminal justice and security in Central and Eastern Europe
2021, other monographs and other completed works

Abstract: Conference proceedings consist of abstracts of conference papers presented at the 13th international biennial conference on Criminal Justice and Security in Central and Eastern Europe organised by the Faculty of Criminal Justice ans Security of the University of Maribor, Slovenia. The conference was held online between 13 and 15 September 2021. A lead topic of the conference is rural criminology and perspectives such as deviance, crime and social control activities, and provision of safety ans security. At the conference, 68 papers were presented by 116 authors from 22 countries. A celebration of the 25th anniversary of the international biennial conference took place. The conference proves an active and fruitfull international research activities of the Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security of the University of Maribor.
Keywords: criminal justice, criminal justice and security studies, criminology, conference, Central and Eastern Europe. rural criminology
Published: 13.08.2021; Views: 188; Downloads: 23
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2.
Immunity of Heads of State and High-Ranking State Officials for International Crimes
Admir Muratović, 2021, master's thesis

Abstract: The present thesis is devoted to the immunity of Heads of State and high-ranking State officials, generally meaning the Heads of Government, and the Foreign Ministers, before the national and international courts, for international crimes as codified in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), namely the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression, with partial touch upon the crime of torture as well. The introductory part lays out the prosecution of State officials throughout the history all the way to the World War II, the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, and the developments in the decades post-World War II, with the eventual establishment of the ICC. Afterwards, the definitions and list of international crimes are discussed. Following the arguments for the rationale behind immunity and the correlation between immunity and jurisdiction, I elaborate on the various types of immunity, such as State immunity – and its subcategories personal and functional immunities – and diplomatic immunity. Thereby, I discuss at length the range of seemingly outstanding questions relating to, e.g., the scope of State officials entitled to immunity ratione personae, whether the commission of international crimes constitute officials acts, whether the immunity of State precludes a lawsuit towards State for breaches of jus cogens norms by acts that qualify as acta jure imperii, whether the diplomatic immunity pertains to high-ranking State officials other than ambassadors and diplomatic agents, etc. The explanations of other, less debatable questions, such as the distinction between personal and functional immunities for international crimes before national courts, is also provided. In the following part, I analyse the immunity of the incumbent high-ranking State officials before international courts, with a particular focus set on the ICC and Article 27 of the Rome Statute. Emphasizing provisions concerning international cooperation and judicial assistance to the ICC, I bring up Article 98 of the Rome Statute as a counterweight to the rejection of immunity before the ICC, and consider the interplay between both, Articles 27 and 98. Another point of divergence here is the question of which States fall under the scope of the term ‘third State’ in Article 98 of the Rome Statute. Furthermore, the analysis of the Al-Bashir case is provided through the application of the United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 1593 (2005), as well as Articles 25 and 103 of the UN Charter. Additionally, I intend to provide a method of resolving some of the ambiguities stemming out of the seemingly contradicting Rome Statute provisions by applying the rules of treaty interpretation, in particular its subsidiary means, discerning the object and purpose of the Rome Statute through the lenses of its Preamble. In the final part, I have sought out various other concepts that could supersede the immunity of high-ranking State officials for international crimes, including the jus cogens international crime exception to immunity, the obligation aut dedere aut judicare, and the universal jurisdiction.
Keywords: State immunity, immunity ratione personae, immunity ratione materiae, Heads of State, high-ranking State officials, international crimes, international courts, International Criminal Court (ICC), Rome Statute, Al-Bashir case, UN Security Council
Published: 23.07.2021; Views: 321; Downloads: 42
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3.
Systemic direction and supervision of police work in the Republic of Slovenia
Maja Modic, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of the target research project "Effectiveness of Systemic Supervision of the Police in Regard to Human Rights as well as the Statutory and Professional Standards of Police Work (V5-1942)". We focused on the implementation of systemic supervision of police work, more precisely, on the operations of the Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police, which operates within the Police and Security Directorate. Design/Methods/Approach: We examined how systemic supervisory activity of the work of the police is regulated by Slovenian law, limiting ourselves to the work of the Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police. Based on the findings and an additional review of anonymised supervision reports, we prepared a questionnaire and conducted a structured written interview as well as oral interviews with the Division's employees. Findings: Systemic supervision efforts are contributing significantly to the quality of policing, but challenges and opportunities for improvement still remain. One of the main challenges is keeping police officers informed about supervision reports and effectively implementing inspection findings. Research Limitations/Implication: In the part of the study described, we focus exclusively on the work of the Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police and take a look at systemic supervision activities solely from the Division's point of view. For a more complete overview of the matter, our findings should be compared with the perspective of those being supervised, i.e. the police officers who have undergone supervision. Originality/Value: The main added value of the paper is that it examines how supervisors perceive their own work and the organisation, operation and effectiveness of systemic supervisions of police work.
Keywords: systemic supervision of police work, Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police, Police and Security Directorate, Slovenia
Published: 11.06.2021; Views: 236; Downloads: 6
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4.
The impact of digital technologies and digitalization on labour law
Mitja Stefancic, Elizabeta Zirnstein, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Building on research focusing on the impact of digital technologies on the labour market, this paper provides an interpretation of major findings by reference to labour law in Slovenia. It is argued that the existing labour law in Slovenia does a reasonable job in dealing with the changes we are witnessing in digital economy. However, the problem is in the implementation of workers rights in practice. The workers are not taking action to enforce their legal rights as much as one could expect. In addition to this, employers do not put enough attention to the challenges that digitalisation brings in the field of health at work and in the field of workers% skills. Therefore, the Slovene government should embark upon a system of reforms to improve the promptness of courts in labour disputes. It should also appoint more labour inspectors. At the same time, employers should adopt practical solutions regarding the organisation of working process with aim to diminish the negative impacts of digitalisation on health at work. Furthermore, the employers should put more attention to the development of workers skills, especially those which, according to theory, will be crucial in the future.
Keywords: digital technology, technological progress, Slovene labour law, employment relations, working conditions, social security
Published: 15.01.2021; Views: 136; Downloads: 18
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5.
The role and function of a sports event organiser
Timotej Praznik, Maja Modic, Simon Slokan, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the organisation of a sports event - more precisely, a football match, specifically from the point of view of safety. We compared the Slovenian practice of event organising with how sports events are organised in Serbia and Austria. Design/Methods/Approach: First we conducted a literature and normative bases review. The research was conducted through interviews with spokespersons from the football clubs - NK Celje, FK Partizan and SK Sturm Graz. We conducted a telephone interview with the security manager of the European Football Association and also included our own observations from attending the Serbian championship match. Findings: Our research shows that despite the existence of subnational legislation, there are differences in understanding of ensuring safety at sporting events in the analysed countries. As the most common factors that can affect safety and security at a sports event we identified the following: personnel, supporter groups, pyrotechnics and infrastructure. Research Limitations/Implications: Our research is limited to three countries and to three football clubs that were willing to take part in our research. Originality/Value: Research findings are based on the perspective and experience of football club security managers, presenting main risk factors and corresponding measures for ensuring safety and security at football matches.
Keywords: safety, sport event, security measures, security risks
Published: 04.01.2021; Views: 258; Downloads: 14
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6.
Safety, security, and crime prevention in rural areas of Krasnodarskyi Krai and the Republic of Adygea
Anton Petrovskiy, 2020, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the article is to study crime and crime prevention in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea to make suggestions for how to enhance the public security system. Design/Methods/Approach: The following methods were applied to assess crime in the rural areas of the two Russian Southern regions for the period between 2015 and 2019: a statistical observation, and calculation of a crimes index analysis of law enforcement reports. Findings: In order to ensure public security of the population in rural areas it is necessary to decentralise the crime prevention system in Russia by transferring law enforcement powers to the municipal bodies, by creating municipal police and a system for the re-socialisation of former criminals. Research Limitations/Implications: Crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea depends on the impact of local factors. As a result, the reasons and conditions of similar crimes in the rural areas of Central Russia might differ. Practical Implications: The results could be used by the local authorities in planning crime prevention measures and enhancing crime prevention in the rural areas of the regions under study. Originality / Value: The article is the first study of the criminological characteristics of crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea since 2014, suggesting measures to boost crime prevention with regard to the contemporary socio-economic situation.
Keywords: public security, crime prevention, rural area, efficiency of police activity
Published: 04.01.2021; Views: 213; Downloads: 10
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7.
Unlimited access to information systems with mobile devices
Igor Bernik, Blaž Markelj, 2011, review article

Abstract: Purpose: Mobile devices have become an indispensible part of modern communications; they enable easy access to the Internet and also remote manipulation of data stored in corporate information systems. The number of mobile device users is on the rise, but most of them don’t comprehend completely the less obvious functions of these devices. Users also have almost no control over background computer programs, because they run without their knowledge and volition. From the standpoint of information security, a lack of awareness of the risks can seriously compromise the integrity of corporate networks and information systems. The weakest links are users, but also the technology itself. To ensure the functioning and security of information systems, corporations and individual users should learn about protective mechanisms. It is also important that users adhere to implemented (internal) safety regulations. Design/Methods/Approach: We used descriptive and comparative methods, and made an overview of published literature, as well as processes pertaining to the use of mobile devices and related security issues. We compared general elements of information security in regard to the use of mobile devices. Findings: At present mobile devices are more and more frequently used to access information systems. The majority of users are concerned almost exclusively with the question, how to get uninterrupted remote access to data, but far less with security issues. This paper presents some guidelines for achieving and maintaining information security. Research limitations/implications: It has been noted, that this is a time of turbulent development and evolution in the field of mobile devices, and also related security issues, so best practices haven’t been defined yet. Corporations and other organizations have just recently begun defining guidelines to eliminate security breaches through mobile devices, therefore a comparison of their implemented solutions is practically impossible. VS_ Practical implications: We propose guidelines, which can be used to: minimize information security risks posed by mobile devices; evaluate the current state of information security; and implement protective measures against cyber threats encountered by corporations and individual users of mobile devices. Originality/Value: Information security is a relatively new field because mobile devices and remote access to the Internet and data have just recently come into wider use. At the same time security issues and protective measures have stayed largely overlooked. Security threats are many, so it is impervious that users learn more about them and adopt some necessary security measures.
Keywords: information security, blended threats, mobile devices, corporate information systems, business integrity
Published: 12.05.2020; Views: 548; Downloads: 29
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8.
Private policing in the former Yugoslavia
Ronald van Steden, Rick Sarre, 2010, review article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to give an empirical overview of the ‘privatization’ of security (or, in a more narrow sense, policing) services within the former countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia namely, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. Observations are put in light of the extant literature on private policing worldwide. Design/Methods/Approach: The paper draws on a literature review of academic publications, NGO-reports and other relevant written sources. Findings: Although it is not possible to offer a full picture of the current developments in the region, we argue that the rise of private security markets shows significant variety throughout former Yugoslavian countries, as does the level of state regulation. Moreover, contrary to the views of doomsayers critical of the provision of commercial security, academics and observers alike are optimistic about private security personnel becoming a legitimate and stabilizing presence in post-conflict zones such as the Balkans. Research implications: The persistence of divergence in private policing trajectories within the former Yugoslavia underscores the need for more detailed cross-national studies that take account of differences, as well as similarities, in how commercial security industries are governed and regulated by state institutions. Practical implications: Public as well as private policy-makers in the field of security serve as appropriate anchor points to facilitate, direct and regulate private policing activities across the former Yugoslav republics. Originality/Value: The growing body of knowledge on private policing is heavily suffused by predominantly North American, Canadian, British and Australian studies. Nonetheless, research from countries outside the English speaking world has much to contribute to an understanding of private security industries. An examination of the Balkan countries that emerged from the breakup of Yugoslavia is particularly interesting when viewed as a post-conflict legacy.
Keywords: policing, private security, ex-Yugoslavia, cross-national comparison
Published: 12.05.2020; Views: 439; Downloads: 14
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9.
Safety issues in psychiatric settings
Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje, Peter Umek, 2011, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to establish if mental health workers (nurses, doctors, clinical psychologists) in Slovene psychiatric settings perceive their work as potentially dangerous and which factors contribute mostly to these mindsets. On the basis of gained data recommendations for safety improvement are suggested. Design/Methods/Approach: Review of three studies conducted in different psychiatric settings in Slovenia. Findings: Just a few mental health workers perceive their work as dangerous. Among those that are most frequently victims of violent behaviour are male and female nurses, especially under circumstances of involuntary admission, involuntary pharmacological treatment and when special security measures are applied. Participants think that workers would need more self defence trainings, additional competent medical staff (foremost male nurses), communication trainings and better cooperation in their working teams. Moreover, those hurt in such incidents should get more systematic help. Sometimes security personnel also intervene, however, they are not qualified for such interventions and special trainings should be provided. Research limitations/implications: Our findings have a limited value because the studies have been performed in the course of different years, different questionnaires were applied and participants also differed (their profession, working tasks, demographic data etc.). Practical implications: Our findings can be used by psychiatric hospital management to plan trainings for mental health workers and organize them according to personnel’s necessities. Results also imply the necessity to train security personnel. Originality/Value: In the past merely analyses of incident reports were made on this topic. However, this paper sheds some light on perceptions and experiences of mental health workers directly exposed to patients’ violent behaviour.
Keywords: psychiatric setting, violent behaviour, mental health workers, safety, security personn
Published: 11.05.2020; Views: 328; Downloads: 30
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10.
The nature of security culture in a military organization
Denis Čaleta, Katja Rančigaj, Branko Lobnikar, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this research article is to define and explain the role of security culture as an important factor in the provision of effective preparedness of security organisation members for managing new types of security challenges, which are transnational, asymmetric and complex in form. It should be noted that, to a great extent, the internalisation of security awareness and the attitude towards security information depends on the organisational dynamics in an organisation. The article will complement theoretical findings with the analysis of the nature of security culture in a security (military) organisation, the priority of which is a high level of awareness of the effects of security culture and its integration in individual and organisational values. Design/Methods/Approach: The article presents views of the Slovenian Armed Forces’ (SAF) members on the perception of factors relevant for the operation of processes forming security culture. The research was carried out on a sample of SAF employees who use classified information in their work. Altogether 53 respondents participated in the survey. The security culture was measured with questions in the form of 31 statements. The respondents answered these statements with the help of a five-level scale. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the listed statements was 0.932. Finally, the nature of security culture was established with the help of a factor analysis. Findings: A factor analysis, carried out at the beginning of the analysis, helped establish six factors of security culture which enabled us to explain 71.99 percent of the variance. The identified factors intended for explaining security culture in the context of a military organisation are as follows: personnel requirements for management of classified information, competence for maintenance of security culture, attitude towards the protection of classified information, procedures for ensuring protection of classified information, recording and elimination of violations in the protection of classified information and organisational measures for management of classified information. The results of the survey carried out among the SAF employees demonstrated that the respondents estimated marked all identified security culture sets of contents above average, with marks ranging between 3 and 4 in all statements. Research limitations: The survey covered those SAF members who use classified information in their work. Hence the results of the survey are primarily applicable to the military environment and could not be generalized for other security organisations. Practical implications: The results of the survey can be directly applied to the management of processes for the protection and management of classified information in the SAF. Furthermore, they also indicate the application of the theoretical understanding of security culture’s significance to the success of security organizations’ performance. Originality/Value: The survey introduces an original approach to the measurement of security culture in security organisations. It can serve as a valuable basis for further research on the interaction of security culture with other factors in security organisations, such as for instance organisational culture. Practicians of criminal justice and security, military science and other similar scientific disciplines can also find this article useful in their further study of standpoints and attitudes of security organisations’ members about their role in the processes of establishing an appropriate security culture, as a precondition for effective management of new challenges and threats that we witness in the contemporary security environment.
Keywords: security culture, armed forces, classified information, Slovenia
Published: 04.05.2020; Views: 327; Downloads: 10
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