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The UN Sustainable Development Goals and Provision of Security, Responses to Crime and Security Threats, and Fair Criminal Justice Systems

Abstract: The book comprises 14 peer-reviewed chapters based on research on crime and security threats in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The book represents a multidisciplinary work that combines different views of safety and security provision in local environments, at the national level, as well as in the international environment. The chapters include findings of a literature review, empirical research on crime and victimization of individuals, case studies, specific forms of crime, institutional and civil society responses to security threats, as well as legal and police and policing perspectives in relation to safety and security provision in modern society.
Keywords: sustainable development goals, United Nations, safety and security, crime, security threats, criminology, criminal justice, fairness
Published in DKUM: 08.07.2024; Views: 80; Downloads: 19
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Decarbonisation of Eastern European economies : monitoring, economic, social and security concerns
Mirjana Radovanović, Sanja Filipović, Simonida Vukadinović, Milovan Trbojević, Iztok Podbregar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background Decarbonisation of the European economy is one of the main strategic goals of energy transition in the European Union (EU), which aims to become a leader in this process by 2050 and to include other European countries making thus the European continent the first carbon neutral region in the world. Although decarbonisation is an important goal of the EU, the models for monitoring the progress of this process have not yet been clearly defined, and views on the social, economic, and security implications in terms of prioritising decarbonisation are conflicting. The main objective of this paper is to determine the methodological correctness of the existing method of decarbonisation monitoring, to develop a new monitoring model indicating the differences in the EU and European countries that are non-EU and to point out the underlying social, economic and security implications that must certainly find their place in the decision-making process in this field. Results The main results showed that there is no clearly defined model for monitoring the success of decarbonisation, while the indicators that are commonly used for this purpose make a model that, as the analysis shows—is methodologically incorrect. In the case of EU countries, the following indicators proved to be the most reliable: consumption-based CO2 and share in global CO2. For non-EU countries, the best monitoring indicators are CO2 per unit of GDP, consumption-based CO2, and renewable energy consumption. These indicators can explain 99% of the variance in decarbonisation success. Conclusions The basic conclusion of the paper is that even before the implementation, the decarbonisation monitoring model should be defined and methodologically tested, and the use of a single model for all EU countries or for all countries is not recommended. It is proposed to simplify the monitoring model, with an emphasis on monitoring of consumption-based CO2, which proved to be the most efficient in all sampled countries. The current method of monitoring is based exclusively on environmentally related indicators while ignoring the fact that decarbonisation is associated with almost all aspects of development. The additional social, economic and security aspects need to be developed and included in the further monitoring process.
Keywords: decarbonisation, Eastern European economies, monitoring, social implications, security aspects
Published in DKUM: 02.07.2024; Views: 87; Downloads: 2
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Compatibility of unilateral sanctions with public international law : magistrsko delo
Andrej Stanišić, 2024, master's thesis

Abstract: This master’s thesis systematically analyses the possible obligations and rules of public international law that must be respected when States impose sanctions without the authorisation of the United Nations Security Council or unilateral sanctions. This type of sanctions has been used throughout history and States are increasingly resorting to imposing them within international conflicts. However, they have never been regulated by any authoritative act, and the decisions of international judicial organs are scarce. In the absence of specific rules regulating the use of unilateral sanctions, this thesis focuses on the general provisions and obligations of public international law that States must respect when imposing sanction regimes against other States. One of the fundamental principles of international relations is the principle of sovereign equality of States, under which States must refrain from intervening in the domestic affairs of other States and must respect their sovereign immunity. Furthermore, States are obligated to respect treaty provisions they have consented to, one of them being the World Trade Organisation’s Marrakesh Treaty, under which States need to respect the rules enshrined General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, like most favoured nation principle. Unilateral sanctions such as freezing of assets of States and central banks, travel bans for State representatives, import and export bans and trade embargos all constitute a threat to breach these obligations of public international law. However, even if States impose unlawful unilateral sanctions, their unlawfulness may be precluded under the rules of lawful countermeasures. Inconsistent State practice, divergent opinions of various scholars and lack of codifications make all these rules and prohibitions difficult to determine. However, given the recent increase in the use of unilateral sanctions, this grey area of international law is beginning to be clarified.
Keywords: State sovereignty, sanctions, legal countermeasures, coercion, national matters, human rights, immunities, inviolability, security exception, most favoured nation.
Published in DKUM: 24.06.2024; Views: 138; Downloads: 22
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Outsource or not? : An AHP based decision model for information security management
Luka Jelovčan, Anže Mihelič, Kaja Prislan Mihelič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: Outsourcing information security has proven to be an efficient solution for information security management; however, it may not be the most suitable approach for every organization. This research aimed to develop a multi-criteria decision-making model that would enable organizations to determine which approach to information security management (outsourcing or internal management) is more suitable for their needs and capabilities. Methods: Our study utilized several different research methods. First, the decision criteria were identified by reviewing related work and then selected by information security experts in a focus group. Second, a survey was conducted among information security practitioners to assign the criteria weights. Third, four use cases were conducted with four real-world organizations to assess the usability, ease of use, and usefulness of the developed model. Results: We developed a ten-criteria model based on the analytic hierarchy process. The survey results promote performance-related criteria as more important than efficiency-focused criteria. Evidence from use cases proves that the decision model is useful and appropriate for various organizations. Conclusion: To make informed decisions on approaching information security management, organizations must first conduct a thorough analysis of their capabilities and needs and investigate potential external contractors. In such a case, the proposed model can serve as a useful support tool in the decision-making process to obtain clear recommendations tailored to factual circumstances.
Keywords: information security, decision model, analytic hierarchy process, AHP, management, outsourcing
Published in DKUM: 24.06.2024; Views: 96; Downloads: 2
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Cyber (in)security of personal data and information in times of digitization
Miha Dvojmoč, Mojca Tancer Verboten, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: In an employment relationship, work and pay are no longer the only important aspects, as importance is increasingly shifting toward obligations concerning the protection of personal data and privacy arising from the prohibition of causing harm to the employer and the duty of loyalty to the employer. The article deals with the constitutionally protected right to privacy and the protection of personal data from the point of view of ensuring cyber security at the employer. The employer is obligated to protect the right to privacy by legal provisions, whereas from the point of view of ensuring the protection of privacy and information, the employer must protect, first and foremost, the personal data of employees. The main purpose of the legal protection of personal data is the lawful and fair processing of the personal data of individuals. Employers are thus facing an increasing number of risks related to the safety of employees and the security of business processes, and it is therefore important to establish comprehensive corporate security to ensure adequate security across all levels.
Keywords: cyber security, protection of personal data, protection of privacy, cyber threats, protection of business secrets
Published in DKUM: 11.06.2024; Views: 91; Downloads: 4
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Requirements for establishing energy hubs : practical perspective
Mahmoud A. Hammad, Sara El Gazzar, Borut Jereb, Marjan Sternad, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The global economy has barely begun to recover from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, only to be thrown into a new crisis because of the Russian-Ukrainian war. The war exacerbated the energy problem by causing a shortage of energy supplies for the EU and other countries, affecting quality of life. As a result, establishing energy hubs for collecting, processing, storing, and transiting energy resources between producing and consuming countries has become imperative to manage energy supplies efficiently. However, previous studies have not yet addressed the requirements for setting up energy hubs from a practical point of view. Therefore, this paper investigates the requirements for the establishment of energy hubs, particularly for oil and gas, from a practical perspective. The researchers conducted 13 semi-structured interviews with different energy stakeholders. Using the SWOT analysis matrix tool, the findings assessed the current state of the global oil and gas market, and the main practical requirements for the establishment of energy hubs were identified, along with the elements for implementation. Furthermore, the article highlighted the most pressing practical issues confronting the establishment of energy centres. Finally, the paper laid out a comprehensive practical framework based on the industry practitioners’ views to help establish energy hubs. The framework provides a possible guide for countries to establish energy hubs based on the main requirements outlined in this study. It can also improve the diversity, flexibility, and security of energy supply, especially for countries that rely on sole suppliers, such as the EU.
Keywords: energy hubs, energy stakeholders, diversification of energy supplies, security and sustainability of energy supply, European Union countries, Russian-Ukrainian war
Published in DKUM: 19.04.2024; Views: 242; Downloads: 7
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Energy security of the European Union and corruption in Central Asia as the main challenges for the European sustainable energy future
Bojana Vasić, Ivan Pekić, Goran Šimić, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background The main goal of the paper is to define, analyze and assess the basic security, development and institutional challenges faced by the Central Asian countries after 2022. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, and with the outbreak of the Ukrainian crisis, Europe faced problems in ensuring energy security, which were further complicated by its decision to stop importing natural gas from the Russian Federation. The Central Asian region is rich in energy resources, but at the same time, it is also a region of special geopolitical interest of often-conflicting parties, characterized by limited information and insufficient academic literature about development, various aspects of security, internal specificities and future challenges. Methods The research included qualitative and quantitative analyses carried out for Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Germany. Data processing was performed based on 16 selected indicators in the fields of economy, energy, governance and climate change, for the time period 2011 to 2021. Data processing was performed using correlation and regression analysis (ANOVA). Results The results showed that corruption represents one of the biggest problems faced by the countries of Central Asia, with the biggest variations in the calculated Standardized Confidence level, which shows that this indicator trend, in relation to the 16 indicators used, is the least predictable. This represents a significant problem for all countries that are supplied with energy products from this region, or plan to do so. Energy security is positive only in the case of Turkmenistan. Regression analysis shows that Kazakhstan reported the best positive trend for most indicators. Data for Germany show consistent values over the observed period. Conclusions The main conclusions of the paper indicate that the countries of Central Asia have certain specificities when it comes to sustainable development, where energy security, corruption and government efficiency can be considered the biggest problems. The European Union must find ways and mechanisms to overcome these and many other impediments if they decide to import energy products from the aforementioned region.
Keywords: energy security, corruption perception, governance efectiveness, Central Asia, Germany
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 204; Downloads: 8
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Ensuring corporate security and its strategic communication in healthcare institutions in Slovenia
Valentina Kubale, Teja Lobnikar, Branko Gabrovec, Miha Dvojmoč, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Ensuring corporate security is an essential and critical component of any healthcare facility to provide safe services to its patients and employees. Healthcare facilities must employ a variety of strategies to ensure corporate security. This includes developing a comprehensive communication plan that defines the roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders. The objective of our study was to present the concept of corporate security in healthcare institutions and in the Slovenian healthcare system, to highlight current threats in healthcare institutions in Slovenia, to describe the importance of strategic communication of corporate security in healthcare, and finally to define the current state of corporate security in Slovenian healthcare institutions in Slovenia. A survey was conducted and distributed to healthcare institutions in Slovenia to obtain results. A total of 154 healthcare stakeholders participated in our study. The results showed that corporate security is present in Slovenian healthcare facilities, but additional efforts are needed to improve it, especially considering the current challenges related to the measures taken after the COVID-19 epidemic and the shortage of healthcare personnel. The legal processes of corporate security in healthcare facilities comply with applicable laws and regulations to protect the interests of their patients and employees. Operational security processes are currently provided primarily by internal providers. There is a need for improvement, particularly in the training and education of staff, who play the most important role in ensuring safety. To effectively establish comprehensive corporate security, strategic communication with all stakeholders is essential to ensure that their security policies and procedures are properly implemented.
Keywords: corporate security, healthcare, strategic communication, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 04.04.2024; Views: 175; Downloads: 12
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PALANTIR : An NFV-Based Security-as-a-Service Approach for Automating Threat Mitigation
Maxime Compastié, Antonio López Martínez, Carolina Fernandez, Manuel Gil Pérez, Stylianos Tsarsitalidis, George Xylouris, Izidor Mlakar, Michail Alexandros Kourtis, Valentino Šafran, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Small and medium enterprises are significantly hampered by cyber-threats as they have inherently limited skills and financial capacities to anticipate, prevent, and handle security incidents. The EU-funded PALANTIR project aims at facilitating the outsourcing of the security supervision to external providers to relieve SMEs/MEs from this burden. However, good practices for the operation of SME/ME assets involve avoiding their exposure to external parties, which requires a tightly defined and timely enforced security policy when resources span across the cloud continuum and need interactions. This paper proposes an innovative architecture extending Network Function Virtualisation to externalise and automate threat mitigation and remediation in cloud, edge, and on-premises environments. Our contributions include an ontology for the decision-making process, a Fault-and-Breach-Management-based remediation policy model, a framework conducting remediation actions, and a set of deployment models adapted to the constraints of cloud, edge, and on-premises environment(s). Finally, we also detail an implementation prototype of the framework serving as evaluation material.
Keywords: Security-as-a-Service, security orchestration, policy-driven management, virtual network functions, finite state machines, constraints programming
Published in DKUM: 06.02.2024; Views: 281; Downloads: 5
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Visiting nuclear reactors : safety and security aspects
Barbara Pavlakovič Farrell, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Visiting nuclear reactors is a niche tourism offer within energy (industrial) tourism, which leads tourists through areas that are not primarily meant for them. Hence, safety and security issues are even more critical in this case. This study aims to highlight different aspects of safety and security issues in nuclear power plant tours and to present measures taken to address these concerns. In addition, we studied the connection between plant visits and the public image of nuclear energy. Information was gathered through participant observation (personal visits of factory tours) and an online survey. There, we identified safety and security nuclear power plant visit protocols and a positive correlation between the visit variable and the two variables of the public image of nuclear energy, which suggests energy (industrial) tourism as a suitable tool to enhance awareness and knowledge about nuclear energy.
Keywords: Nuclear power plants, Energy (industrial) tourism, Safety, Security, Risk, Participant observation
Published in DKUM: 17.01.2024; Views: 251; Downloads: 15
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