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Organised crime (threat) as a policy challenge : a tautology
P. C. van Duyne, 2010, review article

Abstract: Purpose: To analyse some of the key concepts and beliefs related to the risk of organised crime and compare it to the empirical state of affairs, particularly related to criminal finances. Design/Methods/Approach: Analysis of criminal files and databases. Findings: In the past two decades, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, ‘organised crime’ has been proclaimed a threat to society. However, who is threatening with what, while the phenomenon (if there is anything like that) is ill defined? It looks like policy makers are trapped in a kind of tautology, unless there is also a non-threatening organised crime. The threat assessments, which are composed by national governments and Europol are plagued by fuzzy concepts about threats, risks and risk formula which share that characteristic. The formula and concepts used thus far appear to have resisted operationalisation due to the lack of proper definitions to be usefully applied. Inherent to these unsolved problems is the causality issue. Who causes what harm? To approximate an answer to this question the author takes the laundering of crime-money as a proxy variable. What harm does laundering do to the financial system, thereby exerting a threat. Inspection of the scarce data shows that this threat cannot be substantiated, either to the real estate (usually considered menaced) or the financial system (per definition threatened). Either the problem is not big at all or the authorities have not taken their responsibility to provide a proper knowledge basis. The author pleads to break out of this tautological threat rhetoric and to replace this by a proper analysis and a responsible methodology. Research limitations/implications: The data are limited to what has come to light during criminal investigations. However, they are not contested. Practical implications: The research made plainly clear that claims about the risk of crime-money are not substantiated by empirical facts Originality/Value: This kind of research has not been carried out thus far.
Keywords: organised transnational crime, laundering, risk
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 805; Downloads: 54
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Perceived neighbourhood social disorder and attitudes toward feeling safe in Sarajevo
Elmedin Muratbegović, Fahrudin Memić, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: In this article, the authors examine how fear of crime levels vary depending upon the degree of quality of living conditions within neighbourhoods. Additionally, the intervening mechanisms that link the degree of living quality with the level of fear of crime within neighbourhoods of Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina will be explored. Design/Methods/Approach: This article shows the impact which neighbourly relations and social (dis) organization have on citizens’ perceptions of the so-called fear of crime. In order to measure the fear of crime in general, the authors relied on Van der Wurff’s model which has already been widely used in criminology and which is based on six vignettes describing six different social situations. The authors used a multi-stage random probability method to select a representative sample of households living in urban zones of Sarajevo. The sample population (N = 400) consisted of adult (18 years or older) inhabitants of urban areas comprising Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Findings: The Neighbourhood Disorder and Fear of Crime models indicate that welldeveloped social networks have a significant impact on feeling safe within Sarajevo’s neighbourhoods. Research Limitations/Implications: The most serious objection that can be raised with regard to this survey is the application of the interview as the only data collection technique. Most certainly, the inclusion of other techniques (e.g. focus groups) and methods would achieve more valid results. Practical implications: From the perspectives of practical implications, fear of crime can negatively impact citizens’ lives, and it is important to prevent this phenomenon in our communities, through everyday police activities and activities of other institutions of formal and informal social control. Originality/Value: The incidence and perceptions of safety in Sarajevo has become linked with perceived problems of social stability, moral consensus, and the collective informal control processes that underpin the social order of neighborhoods.
Keywords: fear of crime, neighborhood, social disorder, risk of crime, safety feeling, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1187; Downloads: 61
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