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1.
Notaries' escrow services in selling real estate in the Republic of Slovenia
Bojan Podgoršek, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Notary's escrow is a legal relationship between the notary and the parties to the underlying legal transaction, which is generally a sales agreement. Notary's escrow is regulated with mandatory statutory rules commissioning public notaries and the rules of the mandate agreement. Mutual obligations of the parties to the underlying legal transaction in and of themselves do not influence the notary's obligations under a notary's escrow agreement unless they are included in the notary's escrow agreement as a constituent part thereof. Slovenian legislation stipulates the general conditions of notaries' operations. However, it does not stipulate specific conditions that must be fulfilled in order to place documents, funds and securities into escrow with a notary, nor does it stipulate the mandatory component elements of the escrow order. Therefore, The Slovenian regulation of notary's escrow should be supplemented.
Keywords: escrow services, notaries' escrow services, notary escrow of funds, notary escrow of documents, selling real estate, conditions of notary's escrow, risk of non-performance, legitimate interest for notary escrow
Published: 15.01.2021; Views: 121; Downloads: 0

2.
Organised crime (threat) as a policy challenge
P. C. van Duyne, 2010, review article

Abstract: Purpose: To analyse some of the key concepts and beliefs related to the risk of organised crime and compare it to the empirical state of affairs, particularly related to criminal finances. Design/Methods/Approach: Analysis of criminal files and databases. Findings: In the past two decades, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, ‘organised crime’ has been proclaimed a threat to society. However, who is threatening with what, while the phenomenon (if there is anything like that) is ill defined? It looks like policy makers are trapped in a kind of tautology, unless there is also a non-threatening organised crime. The threat assessments, which are composed by national governments and Europol are plagued by fuzzy concepts about threats, risks and risk formula which share that characteristic. The formula and concepts used thus far appear to have resisted operationalisation due to the lack of proper definitions to be usefully applied. Inherent to these unsolved problems is the causality issue. Who causes what harm? To approximate an answer to this question the author takes the laundering of crime-money as a proxy variable. What harm does laundering do to the financial system, thereby exerting a threat. Inspection of the scarce data shows that this threat cannot be substantiated, either to the real estate (usually considered menaced) or the financial system (per definition threatened). Either the problem is not big at all or the authorities have not taken their responsibility to provide a proper knowledge basis. The author pleads to break out of this tautological threat rhetoric and to replace this by a proper analysis and a responsible methodology. Research limitations/implications: The data are limited to what has come to light during criminal investigations. However, they are not contested. Practical implications: The research made plainly clear that claims about the risk of crime-money are not substantiated by empirical facts Originality/Value: This kind of research has not been carried out thus far.
Keywords: organised transnational crime, laundering, risk
Published: 12.05.2020; Views: 191; Downloads: 12
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3.
Kriptovalute kot oblika špekulativne naložbe in ocena tveganosti na podlagi metode VaR
Denis Štotl, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: V zadnjem obdobju se zanimanje za kriptovalute zelo povečuje in te tako postajajo vse pogostejša tema debat, zlasti v finančnem svetu. Kriptovalute predstavljajo stičišče med tehnologijo in financami, saj imamo na eni strani novo revolucionarno tehnologijo blockchain, ki je glavni fundamentalni element delovanja kriptovalut in na drugi strani nek nov razred sredstev, ki pa odpira naložbene priložnosti. V magistrski nalogi je osredotočenost usmerjena predvsem na predstavitev naložbenega vidika kriptovalut. V prvem delu naloge opredelimo kriptovalute, njihov začetek in razvoj. Okvirno predstavimo tehnologijo blockchain in tri vodilne, največje kriptovalute bitcoin (BTC), ethereum (ETH) in ripple (XRP). Izpostavimo tudi prednosti in slabosti kriptovalut. Sledi prehod na naložbeni vidik. Trg kriptovalut je zelo dinamičen, volatilen in špekulativne narave. Razlogov, zakaj se posamezniki odločajo investirati v kriptovalute je več in ti segajo vse od špekulacij pa do dolgoročnih naložb, možnosti diverzifikacije portfelja, evforije. Infrastruktura, ki omogoča dostop oz. nakup kriptovalut ter trgovanje z njimi se še razvija in obstaja vedno več načinov, kje jih lahko posameznik kupi ali z njimi trguje. Glavni in najpogostejši način dostopa predstavljajo kriptoborze, obstajajo tudi razni kripto bankomati, trgovanje pa je omogočeno tudi z nekaterimi izvedenimi finančnimi instrumenti, kot so standardizirane terminsko pogodbe, CFD pogodbe ali pa se z njimi trguje na OTC trgu (trg prek okenc). Vsak od teh načinov ima določene prednosti in slabosti in te so izpostavljene skupaj s tem, na kaj morajo biti posamezniki previdni, ko uporabljajo te načine dostopa. Pomemben je tudi način hrambe kriptovalut in poznamo več vrst denarnic, njihova izbira je odvisna predvsem od lastnih preferenc posameznika, saj imajo te različne prednosti in slabosti, ki so v nalogi predstavljene. V nadaljevanju je izpostavljena vloga institucionalnih investitorjev in "hedge" skladov. Trenutno imajo večjo vlogo predvsem manjši "hedge" skladi. Sledi prikaz gibanja cene treh vodilnih kriptovalut, kjer smo izpostavili večja nihanja, opredeljeni pa so tudi glavni dejavniki, ki vplivajo na gibanje cene. Med temi so ponudba in povpraševanje, novice, FOMO in FUD, širše družbeno sprejemanje ter tehnološki napredek. V drugem, empiričnem delu naloge pa kvantitativno z uporabo znanih metod VaR (value at risk) in ES (expected shortfall) ocenimo tveganost naložb v izbrane kriptovalute in jih primerjamo z izbranimi tradicionalnimi finančnimi instrumenti. Prikazati smo želeli, za kako tvegane naložbe dejansko gre, ko govorimo o kriptovalutah v primerjavi s tradicionalnimi finančnimi instrumenti. Vse izbrane instrumente smo na podlagi izračunanih vrednosti v tabeli razvrstili po tveganosti. Rezultati so pokazali, da med skupinama prihaja do očitnih razlik, saj so izbrane kriptovalute na podlagi izračunanih vrednosti VaR in ES bistveno bolj tvegane od ostalih izbranih instrumentov. Skladno s tem smo tudi za namen preverjanja hipotez dokazali, da med skupinama obstajajo statistično značilne razlike.
Keywords: kriptovaluta, blockchain, bitcoin, ethereum, ripple, naložba, kriptoborza, ocena tveganosti, VaR (Value-at-Risk), ES (Expected Shortfall)
Published: 05.12.2019; Views: 552; Downloads: 77
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4.
Rangiranje tveganj kemičnih dejavnikov tveganja v prehrani otrok
Tamara Krevh, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: Kemijske spojine imajo pri človeku številne vplive na molekularne procese in lahko predstavljajo tveganje za zdravje, če njihov vnos presega varne meje. Ukrepi za obvladovanje tveganj so pomembno orodje za zagotavljanje varnosti hrane. Uporabljajo se lahko različni pristopi, namenjeni zmanjšanju izpostavljenosti potrošnikovim onesnaževalom v hrani. Namen magistrskega dela je rangiranje kemičnih substanc v hrani glede na njihovo tveganje za otroke. Podatke smo zbrali na podlagi poročil organizacije EFSA glede toksičnosti posameznih kemijskih substanc in njihovega vnosa s hrano pri otrocih na evropski ravni. Obdelali smo jih s pomočjo programskega orodja Risk Thermometer, ki upošteva parametre toksičnosti, ocenjenega vnosa in resnosti zdravstvenih posledic v primeru bolezni zaradi prevelike izpostavljenosti. Program izračuna faktorje SAMOE (angl. Severity Adjusted Margin of Exposure), ki smo jih grafično prikazali. Rangiranje kemijskih spojin s tem orodjem se razlikuje od rangiranja po tradicionalni metodi MOE (angl. Margin of Exposure), ki upošteva samo razmerje med vnosom in dovoljenim oziroma dopustnim dnevnim vnosom. Od substanc, vključenih v rangiranje, predstavljajo najvišje tveganje za otroke iAs, aflatoksini, akrilamid in MeHg, najnižje pa nitrofurani, BDE-ji in Cr(III). BPA z vnosom preko hrane ne predstavlja tveganja za zdravje otrok. Pričakovano so onesnaževala na lestvici rangirana kot bolj tvegana v primerjavi z aditivi.
Keywords: onesnaževala / aditivi / tveganje / Risk Thermometer / rangiranje tveganj
Published: 04.10.2019; Views: 385; Downloads: 77
.pdf Full text (783,64 KB)

5.
Geo-information technology for disaster risk assessment
Đorđe Ćosić, Sađan Popov, Dušan Sakulski, Ana Pavlović, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: The Serbian territory (including the territory of the former Yugoslavia) has been continuously exposed to different hazards, often with tragic consequences. Earthquakes and floods, usually followed by landslides, are the most dominant hazards in that region. Disaster risk reduction, prevention and early warning, as an integral part of sustainable development, do not exist in Serbia. That is one of the main reasons why the disaster-related damage is high. Despite very long experience in engineering and resources management in Serbia, there are no scientifically supported and standardized disaster risk-assessment procedures. Expertise only exists in the field of engineering-based hazard assessment. The risk-assessment method proposed in this research includes, apart from hazards, parameters such as vulnerability, exposure and safety. It considers the environmental and social components of risk management. The proposed method, implementing combined mathematical and 3D GIS tools, was applied for the Danube River, Petrovaradin (the city of Novi Sad) area, for which data were available. The relationship between the risk parameters is calculated and graphically presented. Methods like this one should contribute to a shift from a passive disaster-related defense to a proactive disaster risk management, as well as from emergency management only, to disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation activities, in Serbia and the Western Balkan Region.
Keywords: hazard, vulnerability, safety, resilience, coping capacity, risk assessment, risk management, geographic information systems, earthquake, landslide, flooding, exceedance
Published: 13.06.2018; Views: 367; Downloads: 37
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6.
Risk management according to ISO 31000
Borut Jereb, Matjaž Knez, Darja Kukovič, Tina Cvahte, Matevž Obrecht, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: Organizations of all types and sizes face internal and external factors and influences that make it uncertain whether and when they will achieve their objectives. The effect this uncertainty has on an organization's objectives is «risk». Although the practice of risk management has been developed over time and within many sectors in order to meet diverse needs, the adoption of consistent processes within a comprehensive framework can help to ensure that risk is managed effectively, efficiently and coherently across an organization. The generic approach described in this International Standard provides the principles and guidelines for managing any form of risk in a systematic, transparent and credible manner and within any scope and context. All activities of an organization involve risk. Organizations manage risk by identifying it, analysing it and then evaluating whether the risk should be modified by risk treatment in order to satisfy their risk criteria. Throughout this process, they communicate and consult with stakeholders and monitor and review the risk and the controls that are modifying the risk in order to ensure that no further risk treatment is required. ISO 31000 describes this systematic and logical process in detail. (IS0 31000, 2009).
Keywords: risk management, risk analysis, risk evaluation, business, organizations, companies
Published: 10.05.2018; Views: 670; Downloads: 64
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7.
Environmental management & audit 2: Management systems
2016, scientific monograph

Abstract: The present scientific monograph, entitled “Environmental management & audit“, is the result of three years’ work on an international project entitled “Environmental management in Russian companies – retraining courses for the sensibilization for and integration of Eco-Audit programs in corporate decision-making (RECOAUD)”. Within its more than 600 pages, the monograph features interesting texts written by 31 authors from the European Union and the Russian Federation, edited by dr. Borut Jereb, Darja Kukovič and dr. Daria Meyr. The monograph “Environmental management & audit“ is composed of four books: “Scarcity and Introduction of Environmental Management”, “Management Systems”, “Controlling and Stakeholders”, and “Environmental Assessment” (Featured Articles). These four topics reflect the complexity, heterogeneity and multidisciplinary of the project Tempus RECOAUD. The reader of the monograph gets a comprehensive overview of theoretical perspectives of environmental management and audit in the chosen areas. Furthermore, the monograph also highlights the results of research in the field of environmental management and audit as well as trends and challenges in the development of this field. Providing insight into theoretical and research findings, the monograph will prove useful to both practitioners and researchers in the field of environmental management and audit; it can also be used for study purposes.
Keywords: logistics, transport, environmental protection, business risk, oil industry, environmental impact assessment
Published: 09.05.2018; Views: 672; Downloads: 63
.pdf Full text (7,45 MB)
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8.
Risk management in supply chains
Borut Jereb, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: risk management, supply chains, management system, quality assurance, risk assessment, risk catalogue
Published: 09.05.2018; Views: 585; Downloads: 35
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9.
Management and logistics
Borut Jereb, Mimo Drašković, Irena Gorenak, Sanja Bauk, Maja Fošner, Bojan Rosi, Drago Pupavac, Darja Topolšek, Oleksandr Dorokhov, Uroš Kramar, Željko Ivanović, Marjan Sternad, Matjaž Knez, Sonja Mlaker Kač, Ludmila Malyaretz, Matevž Obrecht, Tina Cvahte, 2016, scientific monograph

Abstract: The scientific monograph titled Logistics and Management – selected topics is the result of a bilateral project, lasting from 2013 to 2015 and titled “Preparation of a joint scientific monograph in the field of logistics and management issued at the Faculty of Logistics in Celje and the Maritime Faculty of Kotor”. The project was managed by Professor Maja Fošner, PhD, from the Faculty of Logistics at the University of Maribor, and Professor Veselin Draskovic, PdD, from the Maritime Faculty of Kotor, Montenegro. The main goal of the monograph is to give a comprehensive account of selected areas from the field of logistics and challenges in the development of logistics, such as risk management and supply chains, transport cost, competences in logistics, urban logistics, green logistics, seaport cooperation, logistics network optimisation, logistics in tourism, logistics in performance management, systemic logistics providers and solutions to problems of transportation task. Wishing to offer a comprehensive presentation of various areas in the field of logistics, the authors of the monograph contributions, who participated on the project (Maja Fošner, Bojan Rosi, Borut Jereb, Marjan Sternad, Veselin Draskovic (ed.), Mimo Draskovic, Sanja Bauk, Senka Sekulac-Ivosevic), invited to cooperation also other researchers from the Faculty of Logistics and the Maritime Faculty of Kotor (Irena Gorenak, Matjaž Knez, Matevž Obrecht, Sonja Mlaker Kač, Tina Cvahte, Darja Topolsek, Drago Pupavac, Zeljko Ivanovic, Oleksandr Dorokhov, and Ludmila Malyaretz) who enriched the present monograph with their contributions. The monograph is aimed at professional public and anyone interested in the field of logistics. It should also serve as a useful aid in the study of logistics.
Keywords: logistics, management, risk management, supply chains, transport cost, urban logistics, green logistics, seaport cooperation, logistics network, optimisation, logistics in tourism, logistics in performance management, systemic logistics providers
Published: 08.05.2018; Views: 661; Downloads: 66
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10.
The indifferent, the good Samaritan, the brave and the agent in Allais paradox situation
Anita Kolnhofer-Derecskei, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Background and purpose: Mainstream economic models do not take ownership into consideration. Only after the findings of behavioural economists was endowment effect widely observed. Endowment effect means that goods that one owns are valued higher than other goods not held in endowment. At the same time the principal-agent literature is concerned with how the principal (such as employer) can motivate his agent (say the employee), to act in the principal’s interests and also for their holdings. The main problem is that acting in somebody’s else’s interests can influence our values as well. Moreover, the principal as owner suffers from endowment effect. Both situations can be treated as a risky decision. Risk confuses our rationality in a predictable way. Design/Methodology/Approach: Due to this it was observed how foreign students from various cultural backgrounds decided (n=186 answers) in a risky financial situation by focusing on Allais’ classic gambles. I also presented their preferences over certain and uncertain outcomes regarding the owner of the final win; i.e. how they choose for themselves or on behalf of one of their best friends. One famous experiment - which tested the descriptive validity of the axioms’ expected utility theory - was Allais. Allais handled probabilities and outcomes in high hypothetical payoff financial gamble situations; he found that when offering two similar options, the common consequences will not be removed by the actors. I was interested in what happens when the actors take risks on behalf of others. It was used between-subjects technique on an extended multicultural sample. Regarding the two different topics, three hypotheses were tested (1); based on Allais paradox (2); observed ownerships (3); the comparison of two phenomena. Results: The results show that the subjects responded differently when they needed to decide about their own properties rather when their friends’ properties were concerned. When a sure safe outcome was offered to the subjects, they took more risk on behalf of their friends rather than own. Moreover, the subjects do not take into consideration that the same attributes must be ignored, so Allais paradox was verified. Conclusion: The goal of this paper is then twofold. First, it was established a conceptual link between Allais-type behaviour and ownership problem. Second, Allais axiom was used to characterize different roles. Knowing predictable patterns of seemingly irrational heuristics in human behaviour can improve economic theory. At the same time, this knowledge helps us to avoid irrational decisions.
Keywords: Allais paradox, endowment effect, principal-agent problem, risk
Published: 04.05.2018; Views: 575; Downloads: 69
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