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1.
INDO-EUROPEANS AND WORDS OF COMMON ORIGINS FROM THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
Iva Starc, 2011, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Indo–Europeans have had an important role throughout the history since they represent the most numerous language family in the world. Many scholars have been trying to explain their existence throughout past centuries. This has been causing them many problems since the evidence is rare. In the first part of diploma paper Indo–European languages spoken by various nations in Europe and in Asia are described. Then, as many other scholars, the diploma paper tries to find the homeland of Indo-Europeans and paths of their expansion. Later on Indo–European religion and culture are discussed. Indo–European languages influenced one–another and since English is one of many Indo–European languages, words of common origins from the Indo–European languages were looked for. The words were then divided into categories according to their meaning. The meaning and origins of the words are also provided.
Keywords: Indo–Europeans, homeland, expansion, culture, religion, common origins
Published: 07.09.2011; Views: 1894; Downloads: 96
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Cross-cultural insight into the association between religiousness and authoritarianism
Sergej Flere, Rudi Klanjšek, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The current study investigated the possible existence of a relationship between authoritarianism and religiousness and the possible strength of this potential relationship. The study involved samples from four cultural environments known to differ substantially in terms of religious salience and content: Slovenia (predominantly Catholic), Serbia (predominantly Eastern Orthodox), Bosnia and Herzegovina (predominantly Muslim), and the United States (predominantly Protestant). Religiousness was assessed by way of religious orientation (including intrinsic and extrinsic orientation) as proposed by Allport (1950), whereas authoritarianism was tapped by a modified Lane scale (1955). Results from zero-order correlations indicated a strong and positive association between authoritarianism and all types of religious orientation, regardless of the sample analyzed. Residualizing the main study constructs by demographic variables did not alter the results. The association changed only when each dimension of religious orientation was controlled for the effect of other dimensions. Results did not lend support to the hypothesis that authoritarianism is more strongly linked to those who are more extrinsically oriented.
Keywords: sociology of religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, US protestantism
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 876; Downloads: 64
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4.
Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah). The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.
Keywords: sociology of religion, civil religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, cross-cultural analyses, anxiety
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 808; Downloads: 175
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5.
Questioning the need for a special methodology for the study of Eastern Orthodoxy
Sergej Flere, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: The particular differences of Eastern Orthodoxy alleged by Tomka (2006) to demand a "special research methodology" are tested on a sample of the Serbian Orthodox, comparing them to Slovenian Catholics and American Protestants. The author found no important differences in the direction suggested by Tomka, with respect to the relation between traditionalism and religiosity, to religious experience, to civil religion, to quest religiosity, to religious deeds/sacrifices (consequential religiosity), either structurally or as to magnitude. The exception is to be found in a somewhat stronger link between traditionalism and religiosity among the Orthodox, but the level of traditionalism among this group is lower than in the American Protestant case. Most of the differences found between the groups are attributable to higher magnitudes of religiosity in the American Protestant sample, but a clear peculiarity emerged indicating a higher presence of guilt religiosity in the Serbian Orthodox sample. The concept of God in this environment is that of a punishing God, along with a predominance of extrinsic psychological religiosity, leading to a psychologically disaffected (negative affect) situation.
Keywords: sociology of religion, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, religiosity, religious experiences, extrinsic orientation, quest religiosity, consequentialiy
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 876; Downloads: 52
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6.
The psychometric properties of the Slovenian translation of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity : a study among Roman Catholic undergraduate students
Sergej Flere, Rudi Klanjšek, Leslie John Francis, Mandy Robbins, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: In order to contribute to a growing international research programme concerned with the correlations, antecedents and consequences of individual differences in attitude toward religion, the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity was translated into Slovenian. Data provided by a sample of 808 undergraduate students affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church supported the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of this instrument and commended it for further use in studies conducted in Slovenia.
Keywords: psychology, religion, measuring, attitudes, Slovenia, students
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 874; Downloads: 59
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7.
Religious sentiment as peripheral : cross-cultural study of religious orientation by multidimensional scaling
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, Bojan Musil, Rudi Klanjšek, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The relation between intrinsic and extrinsic orientations was studied in four samples of believing affiliates (Bosnian Muslims, Serbian Orthodox, Slovenian Catholics and US Protestants). By exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and by multidimensional scaling (MDS), differences in patterns of religious orientations were discerned in the various cultures. By EFA, in the two European settings a closeness between intrinsic (I) and extrinsic personal(EP) orientation was noted. Beside that extrinsic other (EO) items, indicating peripheral nature of the religious sentiment, appeared as a separate dimension. The CFA produced slight differences in this direction, still allowing for a four component finding. The two dimensional presentation in MDS also indicated a similarity in pattern of the dimensions of religious orientation. In all four cases a pattern in the distribution of items appears allowing for naming the vertical axis as indicating the variation between centrality and periphery, and the horizontal one as indicating the variation between social and personal dimensions in religious sentiment.
Keywords: social psychology, religion, cross-cultural studies, extrinsic orientation, intrinsic orientation, multidimensional scaling
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 919; Downloads: 65
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8.
Is intrinsic religious orientation a culturally specific American Protestant concept? : the fusion of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among non-Protestants
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The relationship between intrinsic and personal extrinsic religious orientation as suggested by Gorsuch and McPherson is studied within four denominational samples of university students in four different cultural environments. Results show that intrinsic and extrinsic personal religious orientation form two separate dimensions only within the American Protestant sample. In three different European religious environments (one Eastern Orthodox, one Islamic, and one Roman Catholic), all extrinsic personal and intrinsic items can be combined into a single dimension. It is speculated that the intrinsic orientation may be culturally tied to Protestantism.
Keywords: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 921; Downloads: 52
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9.
Gender and religious orientation
Sergej Flere, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Gender has been proven to be a substantial indicator of differences with respect to religiosity within Christianity. Females are always more frequentlyand intensively religious in comparison to males (Francis, 1997). The question of whether this holds for other religions remains unanswered. In this study we focus on university students in Catholic, Christian Orthodox andMuslim environments of Central Europe and in an American, predominantly Protestant environment. Religiosity is studied by differentiating between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (Allport and Ross, 1967). If it were foundthat females are more social-extrinsic religious, one couldspeak of a sociological, instrumental and situational religiosity among females. On the contrary, one is closer to speaking of an immanent difference between the genders. Sociological (with the exception of socialization) and Freudian explanations are not confirmed. Psychological explanations, which include anxiety, authoritarianism and femininity (Bem,1981) are good at explaining thedifferences in religiosity between the genders.
Keywords: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation, gender differences, gender
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 955; Downloads: 49
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10.
The broken covenant of Tito's people : the problem of civil religion in Communist Yugoslavia
Sergej Flere, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The author attempts to demonstrate that the concept of civil religion is appropriate and illuminating in comprehending the culture and society of Communist Yugoslavia (1945-1991). Though manifestly contrary to theism, numerous elements of this civil religion make it deserving of the name: it contained a tale of an alleged sacred historical past and a transhistorical mission of the Yugoslav peoples, including an eschatology, and a sacred covenant. President Tito's charisma was the major element of this civil religion, the idea of a broken covenant was present, along with the rule of equalitarianism (particularly as a wealth taboo) at the ethical level. When Tito's physical presence disappeared, the entire civil religion was doomed (there was no possibility of routinizing and depersonalizing charisma), as well as the society it legitimated. Because of the charismatic nature of legitimation and the basically authoritarian nature of this cultural pattern, transformation into rational-legal legitimation was blocked.
Keywords: religion, politics, Yugoslavia, communism, charisma, broken covenant
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 758; Downloads: 57
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