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1.
Social reappraisal of emotions is linked with the social presence effect in the default mode network
Xiyao Xie, Teresa Bertram, Saša Zorjan, Marina Horvat, Christian Sorg, Satja Mulej Bratec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Social reappraisal, during which one person deliberately tries to regulate another’s emotions, is a powerful cognitive form of social emotion regulation, crucial for both daily life and psychotherapy. The neural underpinnings of social reappraisal include activity in the default mode network (DMN), but it is unclear how social processes influence the DMN and thereby social reappraisal functioning. We tested whether the mere presence of a supportive social regulator had an effect on the DMN during rest, and whether this effect in the DMN was linked with social reappraisal-related neural activations and effectiveness during negative emotions. Methods: A two-part fMRI experiment was performed, with a psychotherapist as the social regulator, involving two resting state (social, non-social) and two task-related (social reappraisal, social no-reappraisal) conditions. Results: The psychotherapist’s presence enhanced intrinsic functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) within the anterior medial DMN, with the effect positively related to participants’ trust in psychotherapists. Secondly, the social presence-induced change in the dACC was related with (a) the social reappraisal-related activation in the bilateral dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporoparietal junction and (b) social reappraisal success, with the latter relationship moderated by trust in psychotherapists. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that a psychotherapist’s supportive presence can change anterior medial DMN’s intrinsic connectivity even in the absence of stimuli and that this DMN change during rest is linked with social reappraisal functioning during negative emotions. Data suggest that trust-dependent social presence effects on DMN states are relevant for social reappraisal—an idea important for daily-life and psychotherapy-related emotion regulation.
Keywords: social reappraisal, social support, social emotion regulation, social presence, default mode network, interpersonal trust, anterior cingulate
Published in DKUM: 18.04.2024; Views: 312; Downloads: 241
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2.
Resveratrol food supplement products and the challenges of accurate label information to ensure food safety for consumers
Maja Bensa, Irena Vovk, Vesna Glavnik, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The food supplement market is growing as many consumers wish to complement their nutrient intake. Despite all the regulations in place to ensure food supplements safety, there are still many cases of irregularities reported especially connected to internet sales. Twenty resveratrol food supplement products sold on the Slovenian market were evaluated on their compliance of declared vs. determined resveratrol content, as well as the compliance of labels with the European Union (EU) and Slovenian regulatory requirements. Both the ingredient contents and food information are important parts of food safety. Analyses of 20 food supplements performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometry showed that 95% of products had contents different from what was declared and 55% of products contained higher contents than declared. In 25% of the products the determined content per unit exceeded the maximum level (150 mg/day) specified in EU novel food conditions for food supplement with trans-resveratrol. Evaluation of the 20 food supplement labels included mandatory and voluntary food information, food supplement information, novel food information, health claims and nutrition claims. Most labels contained the necessary information, but multiple errors were observed ranging from typos to misleading practices. From a food safety perspective there is still a lot of improvement needed in the field of food supplements.
Keywords: trans-resveratrol, dietary supplements, food safety, regulation, labels, health claims, nutrition claims, novel foods, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 164; Downloads: 8
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3.
Sustainability reporting ecosystem : a once-in-a-lifetime overhaul during the COVID-19 pandemic
Daniel Zdolšek, Sabina Taškar Beloglavec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The preparation of sustainability reports, which a negligible number of organisations had been doing until recently, will soon be the new reality for many more organisations. This research aims to present changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in the ecosystem of sustainability reporting pronouncements, especially those used by organisations. In our research, we compare important information about two different periods and the content demands in reporting on sustainability. Changes in the ecosystem are fundamental and unique. Based on the analysis of events and documents, the current research shows the changes in the ecosystem and the future dynamics in the ecosystem, including the principle standard setters (i.e., International Sustainability Standards Board and European Financial Reporting Advisory Group, EFRAG). The research shows that although the changes occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, they did not significantly impact the ecosystem’s development or slow down or stop their development. The COVID-19 pandemic did not affect the speed or dynamics of changes. In the last few years, EFRAG and the European Union established their position and gained a significant influence in sustainability reporting, with EFRAG at the forefront. The European Sustainability Reporting Standards will be mandatory for organisations doing business in the European Union. At the same time, we do not expect that the IFRS Sustainability Disclosure Standards will be directly endorsed for use in the European Union. The paper presents a new perspective on examining sustainability via developing organisations’ reporting demands within the framework of the uncertain environment caused by COVID-19. In this context, our research also contributes to the literature. The study also has a potential practical impact on organisations and management since it illuminates a wide range of selected sustainability viewpoints and their reporting.
Keywords: sustainability, sustainability reporting, standard setting, reporting standards, disclosure standards, nonfinancial information, regulation, COVID-19, ISSB, EFRAG
Published in DKUM: 28.03.2024; Views: 450; Downloads: 541
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4.
Food risk analysis : Towards a better understanding of “hazard” and “risk” in EU food legislation
Ana-Andreea Cioca, Livija Tušar, Tomaž Langerholc, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: For risk communication, it is important to understand the difference between “hazard” and “risk”. Definitions can be found in Codex Alimentarius and the European Union (EU) General Food Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002. The use of these terms as synonyms or their interchange is a recurrent issue in the area of food safety, despite awareness-raising messages sent by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and other interested entities. A quick screening of the EU’s food regulations revealed several inconsistencies. Hence, it was considered necessary to further investigate if regulations could act as a source for this problem. A software tool was developed to support the detection and listing of inconsistent translations of “hazard” and “risk” in certain EU food regulations. Subsequently, native-speaking experts working in food safety from each EU country were asked to provide their individual scientific opinion on the prepared list. All data were statistically analysed after applying numerical scores (1–5) describing different levels of consistency. Results showed that the most common problem was the interchange of “hazard” with “risk” and vice versa. This lack of consistency can create confusion that can further translate into misjudgments at food risk assessment and communication levels.
Keywords: risk analysis, risk communication, hazard, risk, food regulation, food safety
Published in DKUM: 12.03.2024; Views: 393; Downloads: 340
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5.
Assistive digital technology to promote quality of life and independent living for older adults through improved self-regulation : ǂa ǂscoping review
Gaja Zager Kocjan, Tanja Špes, Matija Svetina, Nejc Plohl, Urška Smrke, Izidor Mlakar, Bojan Musil, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Digital technologies can be a key component in helping older adults maintain their autonomy and quality of life in their homes and communities. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the existing literature on the role of assistive digital technologies in promoting a higher quality of life and independent living for older adults by supporting their self-regulation in various aspects of daily living. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Major electronic databases were searched to identify relevant articles published between 2012 and 2022. A total of 972 articles were identified, of which 19 articles met all inclusion criteria. Results are presented in four categories: (i) types of digital technologies, (ii) quality of life domains, (iii) quality of life benefits, and (iv) technological aspects supporting self-regulation. Our review also showed that successful adoption of assistive technologies depends on older adults’ trust in these technologies and the perceived benefits of technological support. Early involvement of older adults in the development of assistive technologies appears to play an important role in their technological self-efficacy. The limitations of the studies reviewed are discussed, and some general guidelines for future research in this area are suggested.
Keywords: digitalna tehnologija, podporna tehnologija, kakovost življenja, staranje, samouravnavanje, pregledni članek, digital technology, assistive technology, quality of life, aging, self-regulation, scoping review
Published in DKUM: 27.02.2024; Views: 256; Downloads: 5
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6.
Is the essential facilities doctrine fit for access to data cases? The data protection aspect
Rok Dacar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Personal data can be of great economic value for companies as it is an essential input for the offering of a wide array of services. One way for a company to obtain access to essential personal data controlled by another company is by demanding mandatory access on the grounds of the essential facilities doctrine. Such access, however, can violate the right to the protection of personal data of the data subjects if it is not based on one of the legitimate grounds for the processing of personal data set by the GDPR. Two of these grounds are especially likely to be applicable to the access to personal data mandated using the essential facilities doctrine: the interpretation of the Commission decision or the judgment of the Court of Justice ordering the granting of access as a legal obligation and the legitimate interest of the company requesting access, for such access. The anonymisation of personal data is not a viable option for the circumvention of the rules of the GDPR as anonymised personal data loses most of its economic relevance for companies.
Keywords: essential facilities doctrine, right to protection of personal data, grounds for processing personal data, anonymisation of personal data, General Data Protection Regulation
Published in DKUM: 26.09.2023; Views: 325; Downloads: 9
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7.
Implementation of food matrix effects into chemical food contaminant risk assessment
Ana-Andreea Cioca, Tomaž Langerholc, Livija Tušar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Food risk assessment plays an important role in protecting public health worldwide. Stakeholders involved in food risk assessment, such as national authorities, agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), industry and consumers, need to properly understand the terminology of food risk assessment effectively. In this respect, the first part of the EU-FORA work programme (WP1) aimed to provide insights into the actual translation of two essential terms used in food risk assessment. ‘Hazard’ and ‘risk’ were first identified and compared between the English version of various food regulations and their equivalents in the national legislation of EU Member States. The comparison and critical evaluation revealed several inconsistencies. These inconsistencies could lead to misinterpretations, followed by errors in conducting risk assessments or communicating risks. We recommend that consistency is restored and maintained so that the message is properly communicated. The second part of the work programme (WP2) was focused on a specific area within chemical risk assessment (CRA). In this context, special attention was given to the impact of the food matrix on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of heavy metals and metalloids. After collection and careful selection of data from scientific journals, a database with information on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in different food matrices was created for future statistical analyses related to dietary exposure.
Keywords: hazard, risk, food regulation, chemical contaminants, bioavailability, bioaccessibility, food matrix
Published in DKUM: 18.09.2023; Views: 430; Downloads: 15
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8.
Cleavage-mediated regulation of Myd88 signaling by inflammasome-activated caspase-1
Monika Avbelj, Iva Hafner Bratkovič, Duško Lainšček, Mateja Manček Keber, Tina Tinkara Peternelj, Gabriela Panter, Steven P. Treon, Boris Gole, Uroš Potočnik, Roman Jerala, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Coordination among multiple signaling pathways ensures an appropriate immune response, where a signaling pathway may impair or augment another signaling pathway. Here, we report a negative feedback regulation of signaling through the key innate immune mediator MyD88 by inflammasome-activated caspase-1. NLRP3 inflammasome activation impaired agonist- or infection-induced TLR signaling and cytokine production through the proteolytic cleavage of MyD88 by caspase-1. Site-specific mutagenesis was used to identify caspase-1 cleavage site within MyD88 intermediary segment. Different cleavage site location within MyD88 defined the functional consequences of MyD88 cleavage between mouse and human cells. LPS/monosodium urate–induced mouse inflammation model corroborated the physiological role of this mechanism of regulation, that could be reversed by chemical inhibition of NLRP3. While Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain released by MyD88 cleavage additionally contributed to the inhibition of signaling, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia associated MyD88L265P mutation is able to evade the caspase-1-mediated inhibition of MyD88 signaling through the ability of its TIRL265P domain to recruit full length MyD88 and facilitate signaling. The characterization of this mechanism reveals an additional layer of innate immunity regulation.
Keywords: Myeloid differentiation factor 88, Myd88, caspase-1, inflammasomes, regulation, innate immunity, inflammation
Published in DKUM: 16.08.2023; Views: 487; Downloads: 29
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9.
Case studies of independent audits of police financial operations by the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia
Bojan Tičar, Jona Koren Fric, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper presents an overview of audit-case studies of the Slovenian Court of Audit where the audit subjects were Police financial operations. In relation to other state authorities, the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia is an autonomous and independent state authority that supervises the use of public funds. The Court of Audit supervises all bodies and authorities in Slovenia that are users of public funds, including the Police. Design/Methods/Approach: Research design of this paper is the set of three research methods used in collecting data and analysing findings. First method is descriptive analysis of legal regulations. Second research method is case-study analysis. Third research method is observational study based on direct interview. Synthesis is presented in the conclusions. Findings: The Court of Audit reviews the credibility of the response report of auditee after audit. If the Court of Audit assesses that the remedial actions were not satisfactory and that the user of public funds violated the obligation to ensure operational efficiency, the Court of Audit may issue a call for remedial action and serve such on the competent authority, which can take measures against the auditee. As the Police are a direct user of public funds, the Court of Audit has the power to carry out an audit of the operations of the Police based on the law. The Police as whole have never been the subject of a regularity or performance audit by the Court of Audit. Research Limitations / Implications: We have limited analysed in details only those cases where police units were subjects of audit performed by Slovenian Court of Audit. Originality/Value: The Police have been the subject of three audits in time from beginning of Court of Audit operations and today. These cases are presented in the quality analysis. Based on this quality analysis, authors have also addressed some questions directly to the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia, i.e., in the form of a directed interview. The questions concerned external audits of Police operations by the Court of Audit and an assessment of the cooperation of the Court of Audit with the Police. Our research results are presented in the end of this article. In conclusion, the standpoints of the Court of Audit in fact support our previous findings presented in this paper.
Keywords: Slovenian Police, Slovenian Court of Audit, mandatory audits, regularity audits, performance audits, legal regulation of the Court of Audit
Published in DKUM: 11.06.2021; Views: 1348; Downloads: 13
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10.
Selective distribution restrictions in the EU competition law
Daria Kostecka-Jurczyk, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The dynamic development of digital technologies favours the rapid increase the popularity of electronic commerce, but at the same time causes an ever-stronger competitive pressure, prompting manufacturers and wholesalers to use various tools for controlling the sales system, especially prices. They often impose various restrictions on commercial partners (e.g. distributors) by preventing them from using certain sales channels. However, it is difficult to delimit the legality of such sales restrictions. It is very difficult to find an answer to the question of where the appropriate demarcation line should be drawn that determines the violation of competition rules, especially in online sales. Regulation 330/2010 seems not to be tailored to the assessment of restrictions in online distribution channels. The aim of the article is to point out the lack of appropriate tools to assess the restrictions of internet sales. The article shows that there is currently no uniform approach by antitrust authorities, which in turn results in legal uncertainty. It seems that the amendment of Regulation 330/2010 should be considered and the market share threshold set out in it should be lowered, while at the same time ensuring that it will be an actual safe harbour for companies, including online distributors.
Keywords: anticompetitive agreements, block exemption regulation, competition law, online sales, selective distribution, vertical agreements
Published in DKUM: 15.01.2021; Views: 1227; Downloads: 0

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