Immunity of Heads of State and High-Ranking State Officials for International CrimesAdmir Muratović
, 2021, master's thesis
Abstract: The present thesis is devoted to the immunity of Heads of State and high-ranking State officials, generally meaning the Heads of Government, and the Foreign Ministers, before the national and international courts, for international crimes as codified in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), namely the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression, with partial touch upon the crime of torture as well.
The introductory part lays out the prosecution of State officials throughout the history all the way to the World War II, the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, and the developments in the decades post-World War II, with the eventual establishment of the ICC. Afterwards, the definitions and list of international crimes are discussed.
Following the arguments for the rationale behind immunity and the correlation between immunity and jurisdiction, I elaborate on the various types of immunity, such as State immunity – and its subcategories personal and functional immunities – and diplomatic immunity. Thereby, I discuss at length the range of seemingly outstanding questions relating to, e.g., the scope of State officials entitled to immunity ratione personae, whether the commission of international crimes constitute officials acts, whether the immunity of State precludes a lawsuit towards State for breaches of jus cogens norms by acts that qualify as acta jure imperii, whether the diplomatic immunity pertains to high-ranking State officials other than ambassadors and diplomatic agents, etc. The explanations of other, less debatable questions, such as the distinction between personal and functional immunities for international crimes before national courts, is also provided.
In the following part, I analyse the immunity of the incumbent high-ranking State officials before international courts, with a particular focus set on the ICC and Article 27 of the Rome Statute. Emphasizing provisions concerning international cooperation and judicial assistance to the ICC, I bring up Article 98 of the Rome Statute as a counterweight to the rejection of immunity before the ICC, and consider the interplay between both, Articles 27 and 98. Another point of divergence here is the question of which States fall under the scope of the term ‘third State’ in Article 98 of the Rome Statute. Furthermore, the analysis of the Al-Bashir case is provided through the application of the United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 1593 (2005), as well as Articles 25 and 103 of the UN Charter. Additionally, I intend to provide a method of resolving some of the ambiguities stemming out of the seemingly contradicting Rome Statute provisions by applying the rules of treaty interpretation, in particular its subsidiary means, discerning the object and purpose of the Rome Statute through the lenses of its Preamble.
In the final part, I have sought out various other concepts that could supersede the immunity of high-ranking State officials for international crimes, including the jus cogens international crime exception to immunity, the obligation aut dedere aut judicare, and the universal jurisdiction.
Keywords: State immunity, immunity ratione personae, immunity ratione materiae, Heads of State, high-ranking State officials, international crimes, international courts, International Criminal Court (ICC), Rome Statute, Al-Bashir case, UN Security Council
Published: 23.07.2021; Views: 224; Downloads: 35
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Assessment of the innovation system in SMEs using innovation taxonomy and pondering methodsAna Gallardo Gandarillas
, 2021, undergraduate thesis
Abstract: In this bachelor thesis, the different types of innovation within a company are studied and analysed. The companies studied are SMEs i.e. from 10 to 250 employees. Smaller companies are mainly confronted with the problem of resources and larger companies with their strategic orientation. We have studied the ten types of innovations according to Doblin (Doblin 2014), and we realise that they have a rather marketing-oriented focus, so we analyse five groups of innovations that we consider to be the key (marketing, product, organisational, business model and technological innovation). Five groups of innovations have been weighed on a scale from 0 to 100 % according to their importance to contribute to the economic success of the company. All groups have been weighted and ranked in order of priority to initiate the innovation process in the SME, starting with marketing, followed by product, technological, organisational and business model innovations. We found innovation process needs to be implemented as a continuous cyclical process. If the company wants to be successful, it is a continuous cycle model, which should never stop. Once a particular innovation is chosen, it will be studied and tested whether the investment can be successful. If so investment process will be executed, if not, the cycling process will start again until gives a positive result. This way one of the innovation is recognized as most important according to circumstances in SME involved at a certain moment.
Keywords: Innovation model, types of innovation, pondering of innovations, cycling innovation process, innovation in SMEs, ten types of innovation by Doblin, ranking of innovations, marketing innovations, product innovations.
Published: 07.07.2021; Views: 89; Downloads: 11
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Tourist farm service quality assessmentKarmen Pažek
, Črtomir Rozman
, 2010, review article
Abstract: Farm tourism shows a structure different from agriculture, forestry, and fishery; farm tourism is expanding, labour intensive, generates an influx of money, and maintains the service base in the region. Farm tourism is one of the most important supplementary activities and generates considerable secondary income. This paper present the developed methodology that will enable the ranking of tourist farms based on their service quality. This is accomplished through the use of the expert system based on the DEXi decision-making method. Using DEXi, the multi-criteria decision model for the assessment of farm tourism-s service quality was developed. The model was applied in practice on 7 vacation farms. The data from the questionnaires completed by farm guests and hosts was used as input data in the multi-attribute model and as an arbitrary estimation for the farm. The results of the model are shown as the assessments for individual farms. Out of seven chosen farms, four achieved the best possible estimation. Two of them achieved middle estimation. For the last tourist farm, where a data deficit was present, the model showed two final possible estimations (very good or good and bad - depends on value of missing attributes.
Keywords: tourist farm, multi-criteria analysis, DEXi methodology, ranking
Published: 29.03.2018; Views: 388; Downloads: 77
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Search engine optimizationMarko Urh
, 2010, original scientific article
Abstract: The paper deals with the importance of web page optimization. Internet and its characteristics are shown in the beginning of this paper, as the main source of obtaining information. Web pages should have all the necessary information that people are seeking and should also be ranged as high as possible in the search engines. The fact is that almost every search begins through a search engine. The basic tool that is used here are words that describe your search area and are called keywords. Examples are showing us the differences between optimized and not-optimized pages. Article deals with the basic examples of a page optimization (on-page optimization) and also web page optimization outside the page (off-page optimization). Further on we can know about the recommended techniques and possibility how to use them in online optimization to increase your competitiveness in search marketing which leads to more web page visitors. It also shows the advantages of optimized web pages and its trends that are shown in the area of search marketing.
Keywords: optimization, search engine optimization, internet marketing, page ranking
Published: 03.11.2017; Views: 707; Downloads: 333
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Analysis of gene ranking algorithms with extraction of relevant biomedical concepts from Pubmed publicationsSimon Kocbek
, Rune Saetre
, Gregor Štiglic
, Jin-Dong Kim
, Igor Pernek
, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka
, Peter Kokol
, Sophia Ananiadou
, Jun-ichi Tsujii
, 2011, published scientific conference contribution abstract
Keywords: DNA microarray, gene ranking, algorithms, Pubmed publications
Published: 05.06.2012; Views: 1290; Downloads: 25
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Local search engine with global content based on domain specific knowledgeSandi Pohorec
, Mateja Verlič
, Milan Zorman
, 2009, original scientific article
Abstract: In the growing need for information we have come to rely on search engines. The use of large scale search engines, such as Google, is as common as surfingthe World Wide Web. We are impressed with the capabilities of these search engines but still there is a need for improvment. A common problem withsearching is the ambiguity of words. Their meaning often depends on the context in which they are used or varies across specific domains. To resolve this we propose a domain specific search engine that is globally oriented. We intend to provide content classification according to the target domain concepts, access to privileged information, personalization and custom rankingfunctions. Domain specific concepts have been formalized in the form ofontology. The paper describes our approach to a centralized search service for domain specific content. The approach uses automated indexing for various content sources that can be found in the form of a relational database, we! b service, web portal or page, various document formats and other structured or unstructured data. The gathered data is tagged with various approaches and classified against the domain classification. The indexed data is accessible through a highly optimized and personalized search service.
Keywords: information search, personalization, indexes, crawling, domain specific crawling, natural language processing, content tagging, distributed data sources, ranking functions
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1410; Downloads: 29
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