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1.
Modelling of fatigue microfracture in porous sintered steel using a phase-field method
Zoran Tomić, Tomislav Jarak, Tomislav Lesičar, Nenad Gubeljak, Zdenko Tonković, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Porosity in sintered materials negatively affects its fatigue properties. In investigating its influence, the application of numerical simulations reduces experimental testing, but they are computationally very expensive. In this work, the application of a relatively simple numerical phase-field (PF) model for fatigue fracture is proposed for estimation of the fatigue life of sintered steels by analysis of microcrack evolution. A model for brittle fracture and a new cycle skipping algorithm are used to reduce computational costs. A multiphase sintered steel, consisting of bainite and ferrite, is examined. Detailed finite element models of the microstructure are generated from high-resolution metallography images. Microstructural elastic material parameters are obtained using instrumented indentation, while fracture model parameters are estimated from experimental S–N curves. Numerical results obtained for monotonous and fatigue fracture are compared with data from experimental measurements. The proposed methodology is able to capture some important fracture phenomena in the considered material, such as the initiation of the first damage in the microstructure, the forming of larger cracks at the macroscopic level, and the total life in a high cycle fatigue regime. However, due to the adopted simplifications, the model is not suitable for predicting accurate and realistic crack patterns of microcracks.
Keywords: sintered steel, microcracks, fatigue, phase-field method, porosity
Published in DKUM: 09.02.2024; Views: 92; Downloads: 7
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Reducing carbon footprint in an oem supply chain caused by inadequate interpretation of x-ray results of hidden defects in ductile iron castings
Tadej Pavlin, Iztok Brinovar, Bojan Stergar, Zdravko Praunseis, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: In the global market, the casting industry recorded a growth trend for ductile iron last year. Ductile iron is used due to its excellent mechanical properties, machinability and castability. The microstructure of nodular cast iron consists of a metal matrix and graphite extruded in the form of beads and nodules. In recent years, the production of ductile iron castings has increased significantly for parts for heavy transport vehicles and containers for permanent disposal of nuclear waste, and it is expected that this trend of expansion will continue for at least the next twenty years. When poured in sand moulds, the quality of products can not be reached. There can be defects on the raw surface and/or on the machining surface, as well as hidden defects inside the material. For casting products, defects can be detected on raw and machining surfaces and inside material defects by carrying out a visual inspection. The results of the inspection depend on the inspection method used. In general, basic methods of cutting or milling inspection are used in the casting industry, which means that products are classified in terms of whether or not they meet the drawing specification(s). The authors of this paper focused on the hidden defects inside ductile iron material, which can be detected by carrying out a cutting or milling inspection or through an X-ray inspection. Huge amounts of energy and energy sources are used in the production of nodular cast iron, which creates a negative environmental footprint. Therefore, by being preventively rational and through appropriate control procedures it is possible to significantly reduce the carbon footprint.
Keywords: carbon footprint, ductile iron, X-ray inspection, cutting inspection, hidden mistakes, defects, porosity, inclusion, green energy, reduced production of energy, decrease in production emissions
Published in DKUM: 26.10.2023; Views: 202; Downloads: 4
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4.
Vpliv izdelovalnih parametrov na lastnosti izdelkov iz Ti-6Al-4V, narejenih s selektivnim laserskim taljenjem in plastenje površine z bioaktivnim polimerom
Snehashis Pal, 2019, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Technological parameters included in energy density (ED) are the more powerful tools in selective laser melting (SLM) technology which can be used in the time of fabrication to regulate chemical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of a product. The volumetric Energy Density (ED) depends on the energy input employed by the laser power, scanning speed, hatch spacing, and the layer thickness. Density, microstructure, surface morphology, dimension accuracy, strength and porosity including the number of pores, place of the pore, size of a pore shape of a pore, inclusions of pores of an SLM product depends on the processing parameters. As the powder material fusion process is done by track by track and layer by layer, the architecture of the microstructure in a product is oriented as the direction of building up too. The research has emphasized on metallurgical properties, tensile properties, and producing the non-porous products from Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder and surface modification using bioactive polymer for orthopedic application. The research has followed four steps to study the metallurgical properties and finding out the combinations of technological parameters in producing non-porous products. The purpose of the first step of the study was to examine the effects of ED on the product properties and to obtain an optimum ED as well as the optimal range of scanning speed. The second step of the study has focused on the influences of laser power. The third step of the study has investigated the effect of amounts of track overlapping and hatch spacing. Almost a zero-porosity product has been able to produce by following these three steps of the ongoing research. The fourth step has studied the metallurgical properties emphasizing on re-melting of every layer. High-density products have been found in the fourth step where a small amount of very small sized pores are present as a result of keyhole effect and gaseous bubble entrapment mainly. Four buildup orientations have been selected for each ED in the first step of the study to examine the tensile properties of the products. The best buildup orientation has been seen in longitudinally vertical tensile specimens considering tensile properties. The tensile properties have also been studied in the second and third step of the study with best build up orientation of the tensile specimens. The alterations of metallurgical and tensile properties have also been investigated after heat-treatment of the specific samples. Dimensional accuracies were also invigilated on the cubic, and tensile specimens over the studies and consequently, inaccuracies have been noticed. The fifth step of the study has observed the pore properties, adhesion properties, the compressive strength of gelatin coating manufactured using unidirectional freezing and the freeze-drying process of three different gelatin concentrations on four different surfaced Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. The results indicate that the coating properties depend on the substrate’s surface texture as well as the concentration of gelatin. Above 80% of porosity, interconnected and well-aligned pores of 75-200 μm have been obtained which is required to stimulate bone ingrowth histologically.
Keywords: selective laser melting, unidirectional freezing, fabricating parameters, porosity, microstructure, mechanical strength
Published in DKUM: 01.04.2019; Views: 1656; Downloads: 137
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5.
Evaluation of the constriction size reduction of granular filters due to upstream cohesive base-soil erosion
Samira Azirou, Ahmed Benamar, Abdelkader Tahakourt, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This study is devoted to filter-constrictions analysis and its application with respect to void and constrictions reduction during soil filtration. The experimental investigation involves combined Hole Erosion-Filtration tests using several soils and filters. The base soils are lean clays and the granular filters are selected according to the usual filtration criteria. The combination of the experimental data for porosity variation and the analytical results from the Constriction Size Distribution (CSD) analysis was used to evaluate the constrictions size reduction subsequent to the filtration process. The filtration depth was also estimated according to the retained soil mass and the porosity reduction deduced from the measured hydraulic conductivity. An analytical model of the CSD was applied to the experimental results in order to assess the constrictions reduction. As regards the obtained results, a nonuniform constriction reduction was suggested according to the effective filtration depth, advocating a dynamic filter action.
Keywords: granular filter, internal erosion, constriction, porosity, filtration index
Published in DKUM: 11.10.2018; Views: 1322; Downloads: 550
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6.
The dynamic properties of the snail soil from the Ljubljana marsh
Bojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: A series of cyclic triaxial tests was performed on snail-soil samples with different porosities. The cyclic loading was performed with a Wykeham Farrance cyclic triaxial system. The investigation was based on a series of tests in which the following conditions were varied: the initial effective pressures (50, 100, and 150 kPa), the void ratio after consolidation (2.0–1.2) and the cyclic loading expressed by the cyclic stress ratio CSR (0.1–1.0). Measurements were made of the stress, the deformation and the pore-water pressure. The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between the geomechanical characteristics and the porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of the density, the porosity or the water content. It is evident from the results that the changes in the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are non-linear with respect to the changes in the porosity. However, the changes at high porosity are much greater than the changes at low porosity, and the changes of the mechanical parameters, such as the Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the friction angle, are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity, and after that become non-linear. The initial void ratio e is extremely high and the snail soil is liquid after consolidation; a volume strain of εvol > 16 % is needed for the plastic limit state. The chemical and mineral composition, the particle size distribution and the remains of micro-organisms in the snail soil are constants. In addition, the specific surface is independent of the porosity and the density or unit weight, the porosity and the volume strain are in the well-known correlation. The performed cyclic triaxial tests show the dynamic characteristics of the snail soil and the influence of the porosity on the cyclic loading strength. The snail soil was recognized as a highly sensitive material. A large strain appears after the initial cycles. The pore pressure, increases already during the first cycle, to the hydrostatic part of the cyclic loading, or more (depending on CSR). The damping ratio increases exponentially with strain, after some cycles it reach its maximum value, and after that it decreases to the asymptotic value. The reason for such behaviour is the large deformation. The maximum and asymptotic values of the damping ratio are a changed minimum with a void ratio. There is obviously no influence of the porosity on the damping ratio. The shear modulus is described in relation to shear strain. The increasing of the pore pressure is independent of the porosity until it reaches some value of the pore-pressure ratio (>0.7). Similarly, the increasing of the shear strain becomes dependent on the void ratio until it reaches some particular value of the shear strain (>3%). The deformation and failure lines for the different porosities are determined from the relationship between the shear stress and the effective stress at some shear strain, after 10 cycles. The relationships between the shear stress and the effective stress at some value of the pore-pressure ratio are expressed in a similar way. Two kinds of criteria were used to determine the triggering of liquefaction during the cyclic triaxial tests: first, when the pore pressure becomes equal to the effective confining pressure, and, second, when the axial strain reaches 5% of the double amplitude.
Keywords: snail soil, cyclic triaxial test, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, damping ratio, Poisson’s ratio, friction angle
Published in DKUM: 18.05.2018; Views: 1503; Downloads: 86
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7.
The influence of porosity on geomechanical characteristics of snail soil in the Ljubljana Marsh
Bojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: This article focusses on mineralogical and physical characteristics of snail soil and their influence on parameter values of geomechanical characteristics.Snail soil, which got its name from fossil remains, is a typical layer observed in the Ljubljana marsh. It is distincltly porous, saturated and in a liquid consistency state. Snail soil was investigated for mineralogical and physical characteristics in the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University in Maribor. Mineral and chemical composition, visual appearance, specific surface and grain property were determined. Physical characyteristics show that snail soil is saturated in nature, highly porous and almost liquid. Geomechanical characteristics were investigated for their interdependency on physical characteristics. A series of triaxial tests were performed on snail soil samples of different porosity, density and water content. Cylindrical samples of the height of 100 mm and the diameter of 50 mm were tested using three-axial testing apparatus. The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between geomechanical characteristics and porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of density, porosity or water content. It is evident from the results that changes of the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are nonlinear with respect to changes in porosity. Changes of mechanical parameters, such as Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio andfriction angle are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity.
Keywords: geomechanics, properties of soils, snail soil, triaxial testing, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio, shear angle
Published in DKUM: 17.05.2018; Views: 1437; Downloads: 75
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8.
Simulation of the casting process - a powerfull tool for enchanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining
Radomir Slavković, Zvonimir Jugović, Dražan Kozak, Aleksandar Veg, Radomir Radiša, Snežana Dragićević, Marko Popović, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable product, without internal cavities and micro-porosity. Such advancement of the moulding process is described in this paper.
Keywords: casting, porosity, wear, simulation, MAGMASoft
Published in DKUM: 03.07.2017; Views: 2218; Downloads: 138
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9.
Microcellular open-porous polystyrene-based composites from emulsions
Sebastjan Huš, Mitja Kolar, Peter Krajnc, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Series of cross-linked polystyrene samples were prepared using an emulsion templating approach, where monomers were contained in the continuous phase of the emulsion, while the droplet aqueous phase induced primary pores, connected with a number of secondary pores. Emulsions with a high fraction of the droplet phase (HIPEs) were used and stabilised with a combination of a surfactant (sorbitan monooleate) and various types of particles (charcoal powder, copper powder and carbon nanopowder). The morphology of the resulting porous polymer depends on the type and amount of the particles added to the emulsion; however, in all the cases open-cellular morphology was formed. The size of the primary pores (cavities) ranged from 5 µm to 25 µm, while the size of the secondary interconnecting pores was from 1 µm to 5 µm. The materials were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption.
Keywords: polyHIPE, porous polymers, nanocomposites, porosity, polystyrene
Published in DKUM: 16.03.2017; Views: 1787; Downloads: 140
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10.
The usage of genetic methods for prediction of fabric porosity
Polona Dobnik-Dubrovski, Miran Brezočnik, 2012, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: fabrics, porosity, genetic methods
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1350; Downloads: 85
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