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The plasma polymerisation process for the deposition of amino-containing film on the poly(ethylene terephthalate) dressing-layer for safe wound-healing
Zdenka Peršin, Adolf Jesih, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: This article presents a new approach for preparing antimicrobial layer as a part of multi-composite dressing for safe and efficient wound - healing within a moist environment. Plasma polymerisation using a mixture of argon, ammonia, and hexane gases was used for preparing a thin polymer film on the poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surface. The plasma deposition efficiency, regarding the amount of nitrogen, was evaluated by the Kjeldahl method, whilst the absorption of C.I. Acid Orange 7 dye onto accessible amino groups was monitored within the UV/VIS spectral region. The quantitative amount of charged surface groups was determined by potencometric titration. The results obtained using Kjeldahl method indicated the presence of a substantial amount of nitrogen within the deposited film. Furthermore, mono - azo acidic dye was absorbed onto the polymerised sample, pointing to the formation of an ionic bond between the sulphuric and amino groups. The plasma deposited PET samples resulted in inhibitions regarding all the pathogen microorganisms used, mostly those present in the infected wound.
Keywords: plasma polymerisation, argon, ammonia, hexane, poly(ethylene terephthalate), antimicrobial properties, wound dressing
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1119; Downloads: 61
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Effects of plasma treatment on water sorption in viscose fibres
Miha Devetak, Nejc Skoporc, Martin Rigler, Zdenka Peršin, Irena Drevenšek Olenik, Martin Čopič, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: We investigated water sorption in viscose nonwoven fibres manufactured by Tosama d.d. with the surface density of 175 g/m2. A comparison between untreated fibres and by oxygen plasma treated fibres was made using optical polarization microscopy. Plasma treatment was done for 10 minutes at pressure of 75 Pa at current of 250 mA at the power of 500 W. Swelling was characterized by measurements of fibre diameter. Modifications of intensity of the polarized light transmitted through the fibre were measured as a function of time of exposure to water. Characteristic swelling and intensity modification times were resolved for untreated and oxygen plasma treated fibres. The swelling time of oxygen plasma in comparison to untreated plasma is reduced by the factor of 0.54 and intensity change time by the factor of 0.4. From the characteristic swelling and intensity change times it was concluded that oxygen plasma treatment of viscose increases the speed of water sorption.
Keywords: plasma treatment, viscose, optical polarization microscopy
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 964; Downloads: 31
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Tuning of poly(ethylene terephtalate)(PET)surface properties by oxygen plasma treatment
Aleš Doliška, Metod Kolar, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Modification of surface properties of poly(ethyleneterephtalate) (PET) thin films by treatment with weakly ionized oxygen plasma was studied by contact angles of water and diiodomethane (DIM) drops. Samples were exposed to oxygen plasma with the ion density of 5 x 1015/m[sup]3 and the neutral oxygen atom density of 3 x 1021/m[sup]3. Just after the treatment they were characterized by contact angle measurements. Results showed a quick decrease of the water contact angle in the first few seconds of plasma treatment, while prolonged treatment did not cause any substantiated modification. The contact angles of DIM, on the other hand, remained rather constant for the first several secondsof plasma treatment, and increased after prolonged treatment. It was found that the dispersion component of the surface free energy decreased with increasing treatment time, while the polar component increased with treatment time. The results were explained by surface functionalization as well as by roughness effects.
Keywords: poly(ethylene terephtalante), PET, oxygen plasma, contact angle, hydrophilic, functionalization
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1158; Downloads: 23
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Nanofoils for soldering and brazing in dental joining practice and jewellery manufacturing
Karlo Raić, Rebeka Rudolf, Borut Kosec, Ivan Anžel, Vojkan Lazić, Aleksandar Todorović, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes the development of novel, reactive Al-Au nano-multilayered foils, their possible application in different fields and a discussion of the nano-foils' suitability for dental and jewellery applications. Moreover, this study includes the rapid joining of similar and dissimilar materials, by placing multilayer nano-foils and two layers of solder or braze. The foils precisely control the instantaneous release of heatenergy for the joining and act as a controllable local heat source. The reactive foils' thickness is in the range 10 nm to less than 100 nm and they contain many nanoscale layers that alternate between materials with high mixing heats, such as Al and Au. The foil between the two solder/braze layers melts the solder/braze with the heat generated by the reaction and bonds the components. The use of reactive foils eliminates the need for a furnace and dramatically increases the soldering/brazing heating rate of the components being bonded. Thus, ceramics and metals can be fused over required areas without the thermal stresses that are encountered in furnace soldering or brazing. In addition, a completely new plasma technology is proposed for the manufacturing of nano-foils and the first results of the preliminary experimental testing are presented.
Keywords: ceramic-metal bonding, low-temperature, nano-foils, plasma technology, dentistry, jewellery
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1271; Downloads: 42
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Modification of non-woven cellulose for medical applications using non-equlibrium gassious plasma
Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Zdenka Peršin, Tina Maver, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents the use of a non-equilibrium gaseous plasma technique for the activation of regenerated non-woven cellulose, as used in the preparation of wound-dressing materials. Plasma technology provides surface modification according to the required quality in terms of speed, homogeneity, process stability, and efficiency. In this study the non-woven cellulose was exposed to oxygen plasma (O2) in order to acquire the natural polymer's super-hydrophilicity which, among others, defines the materials' usability forwound-dressing. The influence of the plasma parameters on the material's hydrophilicity was studied; and the optimal plasma conditions defined. Combinations of different experimental techniques (contact angle, water retention value, and moisture content) were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties, as a function of plasma modification. The specific adsorption capacity of the non-woven cellulose using oxygen plasma treatment was achieved. In the next step, this material with increased hydrophilicity and improved mechanical properties will be used in the preparation of multilayered wound-dressing materials for specific functionalities (incorporation of drugs, specific functional properties).
Keywords: plasma, oxygen, regenerated non-woven cellulose, super-hydrophilicity, mechanical properties
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 469; Downloads: 45
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Determination of topiramate in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
Tanja Vnučec, Lea Cvitkovič-Maričič, Helena Prosen, Darinka Brodnjak-Vončina, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The LC-MS/MS method for determination of the anti-epileptic drug topiramate (TPM) in human plasma was developed and validated for pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study purposes. For quantitative determination of TPM values the method with deuterated internal standard (topiramate-d12) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used. TPM was extracted from the human plasma using the solid-phase extraction procedure on a Strata X extraction column. Negative ions were monitored in the selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) and transitions m/z 338.2 > 78.2 and m/z 350.3 > 78.2 were used for the quantitative evaluation of TPM and the internal standard, respectively. The results obtained from validation were statistically evaluated according to the requirements of European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory guidelines. The linearity of the method was checked within a concentration range from 10 to 2000 ng/mL. Successful validation confirmed that this method is precise, accurate, sensitive and therefore suitable for determination of topiramate plasma levels in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies.
Keywords: topiramate, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy, human plasma, bioequivalence study
Published: 18.08.2017; Views: 519; Downloads: 33
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Covalent binding of heparin to functionalized PET materials for improved haemocompatibility
Metod Kolar, Miran Mozetič, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Mirjam Fröhlich, Boris Turk, Alenka Vesel, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The hemocompatibility of vascular grafts made from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is insufficient due to the rapid adhesion and activation of blood platelets that occur upon incubation with whole blood. PET polymer was treated with NHx radicals created by passing ammonia through gaseous plasma formed by a microwave discharge, which allowed for functionalization with amino groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization using derivatization with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde indicated that approximately 4% of the –NH2 groups were associated with the PET surface after treatment with the gaseous radicals. The functionalized polymers were coated with an ultra-thin layer of heparin and incubated with fresh blood. The free-hemoglobin technique, which is based on the haemolysis of erythrocytes, indicated improved hemocompatibility, which was confirmed by imaging the samples using confocal optical microscopy. A significant decrease in number of adhered platelets was observed on such samples. Proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells was enhanced on treated polymers, especially after a few hours of cell seeding. Thus, the technique represents a promising substitute for wet-chemical modification of PET materials prior to coating with heparin.
Keywords: poly(ethylene terephthalate), vascular graft, biocompatibility, heparin, plasma, functionalization, haemolysis, platelet adhesion, endothelization
Published: 21.06.2017; Views: 373; Downloads: 188
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Hydroxyapatite coatings on Cp-Titanium Grade-2 surfaces prepared with plasma spraying
Rebeka Rudolf, Dragoslav Stamenković, Zoran Aleksić, Monika Jenko, Igor Đorđević, Aleksandar Todorović, Vukoman Jokanović, Karlo Raić, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Thin hydroxyapatite coatings were produced on Cp-Titanium Grade-2 samples, with new high-voltage pulse-power equipment PJ-100 (Plasma Jet, Serbia) in order to get a more stable implant structure appropriate for further clinical applications. A comparative analysis of differently prepared surfaces of the Cp-Titanium Grade-2 samples was done before the hydroxyapatite was applied. Microstructural observation of the modified hydroxyapatite/implant surface was done using scanning-electron-microscopy imaging and Auger electron spectroscopy, with the aim of detecting the morphology and the elements contained in the new surfaces of the samples. The results confirmed that the surface of Cp-Titanium Grade-2 modified with hydroxyapatite is very similar to the bone structure.
Keywords: Cp-Ti2 material, hydroxyapatite, plasma, characterization
Published: 16.03.2017; Views: 459; Downloads: 46
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Modification of PET-polymer surface by nitrogen plasma
Rok Zaplotnik, Metod Kolar, Aleš Doliška, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Low pressure weakly nitrogen plasma was applied for incorporation of nitrogen-containing functional groups onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET polymer. Nitrogen plasma was created in an electrode-less radiofrequency discharge at the nominal power of 200 W and the frequency of 27.12 MHz. Nitrogen molecules entered the discharge region were highly excited, partially dissociated and weakly ionized. Transformation into the state of plasma allowed for creation of chemically reactive particles with a high potential energy while the kinetic energy remained close to the value typical for room temperature. The chemical reactivity allowed for rapid functionalization with nitrogen-rich functional groups. The appearance of these groups was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - XPS. The polymer surface was quickly saturated with nitrogen indicating that the modification was limited to an extremely thin surface film.
Keywords: poly(ethylene terephthalate), nitrogen plasma, surface modification, functional groups, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Published: 17.03.2017; Views: 342; Downloads: 62
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