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1.
Pitting formation due to surface and subsurface initiated fatigue crack growth in contacting mechanical elements
Gorazd Fajdiga, Srečko Glodež, Janez Kramar, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: A computational model for simulation of surface and subsurface initiated fatigue crack growth due to contact loading is presented. The model is based on fracture mechanics theory where the required materials properties are obtained from common fatigue tests. For computational simulations an equivalent model of two contacting cylinders is used instead of simulating theactual contact of mechanical elements. The discretised model with the initial crack on or under the surface is then subjected to normal contact pressure, which takes into account the EHD-lubrication conditions, and tangential loading due to friction between contacting surfaces. The model considers also the moving contact of mechanical elements and for the surface initiated crack also the fluid trapped in the crack. The virtual crack extension method, implemented in the finite element method is then used for simulating the fatigue crack growth from the initial crack up to the formationof the surface pit. The numerical results correspond well with available experimental data. The described model can be used for simulation ofpitting phenomenon of contacting mechanical elements like gears, bearings, wheels, etc.
Keywords: fracture mechnaics, machine elements, gears, contact fatigue, pitting, subsurface crack initiation, computational analysis
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1404; Downloads: 79
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2.
Localized dissolution kinetics of low carbon steel
Aljana Petek, Valter Doleček, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Localized dissolution of low carbon steel in saturated calcium hydroxide with different amount of sodium chloride has been investigated, using a dc technique. Potentiokinetic polarization curves indicated that pitting potentials ($E_{pit}$) decrease linearly with the log of chloride concentration. The rate of pit nucleation (1/$t_i$), and the rate of pits growth increases with increasing concentration of $Cl^-$ ions. Initiation of pitting attack could be ascribed to the adsorption of $Cl^-$ ions on the oxide surface. Adsorption of $Cl^-$ ions is physisorption and follow the Langmuir isotherm with $Δ_{ads}G^0$ = -21.1 kJ/mol.
Keywords: pitting corrosion, adsorption isotherm, low carbon steel, simulated interstitial solution
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1517; Downloads: 51
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3.
The influence of different parameters on surface pitting of contacting mechanical elements
Gorazd Fajdiga, Jože Flašker, Srečko Glodež, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper describes a general computational model for simulation of surface pitting of mechanical elements subjected to contact loading conditions. In the model it is assumed that the initial crack of length 0.015 mm is initiated at the contacting surfaces due to previously thermal, mechanical treatment of the material or running in process. The discretised model with the initial crack is then subjected to normal contact pressure, which takes into account the EHD lubrication conditions and tangential loading due to friction between contacting surfaces. The model accounts also for the influence of fluid trapped in the crack on crack prppagation. The virtual crack extension VCE method within FEM analysis is then used for 2 dimensional simulation of fatigue crack propagation from the initial crack up to the formation of the surface pit. The pit shapes and relationships between the stress intensity factor and crack length are determined for various combinations of contacting surface curvatures and loadings. The comparison of computational and available experimental results shows that the proposed model reliably simulates the surface fatigue crack growth under contact loading and can be used for computational predictions of surface pitting for various contacting mechanical elements.
Keywords: machine elements, gears, contact problems, pitting, fatigue crack growth, simulation, model
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1235; Downloads: 82
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4.
Evaluation of the service life of gears in regrad to surface pitting
Srečko Glodež, Boris Aberšek, Jože Flašker, Zoran Ren, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: A computational model for determining the service life of gear teeth flanks in regard to surface pitting is presented. The model considers the material fatigue process leading to pitting, i.e. the conditions required for the short fatigue crack propagation originating from the initial crack in a single material grain. In view of small crack lengths observed in surface pitting, the simulation takes into account the short crack growth theory. The stress field in the contact area and the required functional relationship between thestress intensity factor and the crack length are determined by the finite element method. An equivalent model of two contacting cylinders is used for numerical simulations of crack propagation in the contact area. On the basis of numerical results, and with consideration of some particular material parameters, the probable service life period of contacting surfaces is estimated for surface curvatures and loadings that are most commonly encountered in engineering practice.
Keywords: machine elements, gears, pitting, fatigue, short crack growth, numerical analysis, service life
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1523; Downloads: 16
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5.
Numerical modelling of micro-pitting of gear teeth flanks
Gorazd Fajdiga, Jože Flašker, Srečko Glodež, Trevor K. Hellen, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: A two-dimensional computational model for simulation of contact fatigue of gear teeth flanks is presented. In the model, it is assumed that the initial crack of length 0.015 mm is initiated at the surface due to previous mechanical or heat treatment of the material as well as a consequence of the running in process. The discretized model with the initial crack is then subjected to normal contact pressure, which takes into account the elasto-hydro-dynamic (EHD) lubrication conditions, and tangential loading due to friction between contacting surfaces. The model also considers the moving contact of gear flanks, fluid trapped in the crack and residual stresses due to heat treatment of the material on crack propagation. The virtual crack extension (VCE) method, implemented in the finite element method, is then usedfor simulating the fatigue crack growth from the initial crack up to the formation of the surface pit. The computational results show that the initial surface crack of length 15 m and the considered boundary conditions lead to the appearance of very small surface pits, which can be termed as micro-pitting on gear teeth flanks. The numerical results correspond well withavailable experimental data.
Keywords: machine elements, gearing, fracture mechanics, numerical analysis, micro pitting, pitting simulation, matematical model, fatigue, contact mechanics, crack propagation
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1664; Downloads: 0

6.
Characterization of defects in PVD TiAlN hard coatings
Peter Gselman, Tonica Bončina, Franc Zupanič, Peter Panjan, Darja Kek-Merl, Miha Čekada, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: PVD hard coatings are continuously gaining their importance in different fields of applications. In industrial use, they are often exposed to corrosive environments. Hard coatings possess inherently good corrosion resistance, but the substrate-hard coating systems may suffer from a severe corrosion attack due to the defects (craters, pin holes) in the coatings. On the sites, where defects extend through the coating, pitting corrosion can take place. These sites are drawbacks in the applications of hard coating. A PVD TiAlN hard coating was prepared on cold-work, tool-steel (AISI D2) substrates by sputtering using unbalanced magnetron sources. The growth defects incorporated into the coating were studied after the deposition and corrosion experiments. We used two methods: (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for general overview of the coating topography and 2D-characterization of defects, and (2) scanning electron microscopy with a focused ion beam (SEM-FIB) for making serial cross-sections through the selected defects in order to provide images for a 3D-reconstruction of defects. In this work we tried to investigate the formation of a defect at a specific location and findout whether the selected defect causes pitting corrosion.
Keywords: trde prevleke, PVD prevleke, defekti, jamičasta korozija, mikrostruktura, PVD hard coating, defect, pitting corrosion, microstructure
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 731; Downloads: 60
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7.
Determination of the critical pitting temperature and the critical ion ($Cl^-$) concentration inducing pitting of AISI 304L stainless steel in 0.5 M $H_2SO_4$
Regina Fuchs-Godec, Valter Doleček, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: Corrosion of AISI 304L stainless steel in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M $H_2SO_4$ + 0.01 M KCNS + x M NaCl was studied at different temperatures (25, 40, and 50 °C). The critical ion ($Cl^-$) concentration (CIC) and the critical pitting corrosion temperature (CPT) were determined on the basis of characteristic corrosion parameters ($i_{crit}$, $i_{pass}$, $E_{pp}$), which were obtained through potentiodynamic scanning experiments. The activation energy of the process wasfound to be equal to -42.0 (1 ± 0.08 ) kJ $mol^{-1}$. As the temperature increased, the pitting potential, $E_{pp}$, was shifted towards more negative values linearly with the reciprocal of temperature, when the concentration of added NaCl was above the CIC. In contrast, at concentrations very close to the CIC, the straight lines changed slopes. This result may indicate of the approximate boundary between metastable pitting and the beginning of stable pitting.
Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, critical ion ($Cl^-$) concetration, critical pitting corrosion temperature, metastable pitting
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 576; Downloads: 59
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