1. Time delays shape the eco‑evolutionary dynamics of cooperationSourav Roy, Sayantan Nag Chowdhury, Srilena Kundu, Gourab Kumar Sar, Jeet Banerjee, Biswambhar Rakshit, Prakash Chandra Mali, Matjaž Perc, Dibakar Ghosh, 2023, original scientific article Abstract: We study the intricate interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes through the lens of the prisoner’s dilemma game. But while previous studies on cooperation amongst selfsh individuals often assume instantaneous interactions, we take into consideration delays to investigate how these might afect the causes underlying prosocial behavior. Through analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that delays can lead to oscillations, and by incorporating also the ecological variable of altruistic free space and the evolutionary strategy of punishment, we explore how these factors impact population and community dynamics. Depending on the parameter values and the initial fraction of each strategy, the studied eco-evolutionary model can mimic a cyclic dominance system and even exhibit chaotic behavior, thereby highlighting the importance of complex dynamics for the efective management and conservation of ecological communities. Our research thus contributes to the broader understanding of group decision-making and the emergence of moral behavior in multidimensional social systems. Keywords: cooperation, time delay, evolutionary dynamics, social dilemma, social physics Published in DKUM: 04.04.2024; Views: 81; Downloads: 4 Full text (5,28 MB) This document has many files! More... |
2. Statistics of limit root bundles relevant for exact matter spectra of F-theory MSSMsMartin Bies, Mirjam Cvetič, Mingqiang Liu, 2021, original scientific article Abstract: In the largest, currently known, class of one quadrillion globally consistent F-theory Standard Models with gauge coupling unification and no chiral exotics, the vectorlike spectra are counted by cohomologies of root bundles. In this work, we apply a previously proposed method to identify toric base threefolds, which are promising to establish F-theory Standard Models with exactly three quark doublets and no vectorlike exotics in this representation. The base spaces in question are obtained from triangulations of 708 polytopes. By studying root bundles on the quark-doublet curve Cð3;2Þ1=6 and employing well-known results about desingularizations of toric K3 surfaces, we derive a triangulation independent lower bound Nˇ ð3Þ P for the number Nð3Þ P of root bundles on Cð3;2Þ1=6 with exactly three sections. The ratio Nˇ ð3Þ P =NP, where NP is the total number of roots on Cð3;2Þ1=6 , is largest for base spaces associated with triangulations of the eighth three-dimensional polytope Δ∘ 8 in the Kreuzer-Skarke list. For each of these Oð1015Þ threefolds, we expect that many root bundles on Cð3;2Þ1=6 are induced from F-theory gauge potentials and that at least every 3000th root on Cð3;2Þ1=6 has exactly three global sections and thus no exotic vectorlike quark-doublet modes. Keywords: astrophysics, compactification, string theory models, geometry, higher-dimensional field theories, mathematical physics, quantum fields in curved spacetime, string phenomenology, supersymmetric models, topology Published in DKUM: 16.10.2023; Views: 209; Downloads: 11 Full text (444,13 KB) This document has many files! More... |
3. Phenomenology of quantum eigenstates in mixed-type systems: Lemon billiards with complex phase space structureČrt Lozej, Dragan Lukman, Marko Robnik, 2022, original scientific article Abstract: The boundary of the lemon billiards is defined by the intersection of two circles of equal unit radius with the distance 2B between their centers, as introduced by Heller and Tomsovic [E. J. Heller and S. Tomsovic, Phys. Today 46, 38 (1993)]. This paper is a continuation of our recent papers on a classical and quantum ergodic lemon billiard (B = 0.5) with strong stickiness effects [C. Lozej ˇ et al., Phys. Rev. E 103, 012204 (2021)], as well as on the three billiards with a simple mixed-type phase space and no stickiness [C. Lozej ˇ et al., Nonlin. Phenom. Complex Syst. 24, 1 (2021)]. Here we study two classical and quantum lemon billiards, for the cases B = 0.1953, 0.083, which are mixed-type billiards with a complex structure of phase space, without significant stickiness regions. A preliminary study of their spectra was published recently [ C. Lozej, D. Lukman, and M. ˇ Robnik, Physics 3, 888 (2021)]. We calculate a very large number (106) of consecutive eigenstates and their Poincaré-Husimi (PH) functions, and analyze their localization properties by studying the entropy localization measure and the normalized inverse participation ratio. We introduce an overlap index, which measures the degree of the overlap of PH functions with classically regular and chaotic regions. We observe the existence of regular states associated with invariant tori and chaotic states associated with the classically chaotic regions, and also the mixed-type states. We show that in accordance with the Berry-Robnik picture and the principle of uniform semiclassical condensation of PH functions, the relative fraction of mixed-type states decreases as a power law with increasing energy, thus, in the strict semiclassical limit, leaving only purely regular and chaotic states. Our approach offers a general phenomenological overview of the structural and localization properties of PH functions in quantum mixed-type Hamiltonian systems. Keywords: quantum physics, energy, localization, quantum chaos, billiards, chaotic systems Published in DKUM: 12.10.2023; Views: 197; Downloads: 12 Full text (5,44 MB) This document has many files! More... |
4. Quantum chaos in triangular billiardsČrt Lozej, Giulio Casati, Tomaž Prosen, 2022, original scientific article Abstract: We present an extensive numerical study of spectral statistics and eigenfunctions of quantized triangular billiards. We compute two million consecutive eigenvalues for six representative cases of triangular billiards, three with generic angles with irrational ratios with π, whose classical dynamics is presumably mixing, and three with exactly one angle rational with π, which are presumably only weakly mixing or even nonergodic in case of right triangles. We find excellent agreement of short- and long-range spectral statistics with the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrix theory for the most irrational generic triangle, while the other cases show small but significant deviations which are attributed either to a scarring or superscarring mechanism. This result, which extends the quantum chaos conjecture to systems with dynamical mixing in the absence of hard (Lyapunov) chaos, has been corroborated by analyzing distributions of phase-space localization measures of eigenstates and inspecting the structure of characteristic typical and atypical eigenfunctions. Keywords: quantum physics, quantum chaos, quantum scars, wave chaos, billiards, chaos and nonlinear dynamics, ergodic theory Published in DKUM: 12.10.2023; Views: 210; Downloads: 28 Full text (11,21 MB) This document has many files! More... |
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6. Rotating solutions in critical Lovelock gravitiesMirjam Cvetič, Xing-Hui Feng, Hong Lü, Christopher N. Pope, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: For appropriate choices of the coupling constants, the equations of motion of Lovelock gravities up to order n in the Riemann tensor can be factorized such that the theories admit a single (A)dS vacuum. In this paper we construct two classes of exact rotating metrics in such critical Lovelock gravities of order n in d = 2n +1 dimensions. In one class, the n angular momenta in the n orthogonal spatial 2-planes are equal, and hence the metric is of cohomogeneity one. We construct these metrics in a Kerr-Schild form, but they can then be recast in terms of Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. The other class involves metrics with only a single non-vanishing angular momentum. Again we construct them in a Kerr-Schild form, but in this case it does not seem to be possible to recast them in Boyer-Lindquist form. Both classes of solutions have naked curvature singularities, arising because of the over rotation of the configurations. Keywords: astrophysics, nuclear physics Published in DKUM: 08.03.2018; Views: 2003; Downloads: 424 Full text (274,39 KB) This document has many files! More... |
7. Conceptual learning of physics in Slovenian primary schoolsIvan Gerlič, Robert Repnik, 2009, original scientific article Abstract: Teaching and learning with computers (ICT) encompasses her help in educational process everywhere there where is this perhaps and reasonable. Using ICT as educated accessory mean search of optimal elements for teaching efficiency and for better achieving teaching objectives. Learning process of science, mathematic and technical subjects in elementary school in many situations demands practically and problem solved work. Conceptual learning of physics is computer based and its strategies lead pupils to a better understanding and use of more difficult processes (thinking, inferencing, using the knowledge). By conceptual way of learning we used "fizlets" as simulatory models. They are interactive materials, where processes happen in certain intervals and there is interaction between the model and the pupil. The main goal of study was to research the effects of conceptual way of learning in comparison with traditional classroom education when teaching the topics "Pressure and lifting power" in the eighth class of primary school. We tested four thinking processes of pupils (knowledge, analyses, inference and comparison). The main expected ascertainment of research was that the pupils, who were taught through the conceptual way achieved better results than those who were taught traditionally in the classroom. Hypotheses were confirmed. In general this article will show other users of teaching physics and science some didactic manners of preparing interactive educated materials. Keywords: education, primary education, educational system, computers in education, ICT, sciences, physics, information technology, communication technology Published in DKUM: 15.12.2017; Views: 1710; Downloads: 132 Full text (823,03 KB) This document has many files! More... |
8. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networksFederico Battiston, Matjaž Perc, Vito Latora, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems. Keywords: cooperation, public goods, networks, physics of social systems Published in DKUM: 04.12.2017; Views: 1133; Downloads: 380 Full text (1,05 MB) This document has many files! More... |
9. Second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment restores the effectiveness of prosocial punishmentAttila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: Economic experiments have shown that punishment can increase public goods game contributions over time. However, the effectiveness of punishment is challenged by second-order free-riding and antisocial punishment. The latter implies that noncooperators punish cooperators, while the former implies unwillingness to shoulder the cost of punishment. Here, we extend the theory of cooperation in the spatial public goods game by considering four competing strategies, which are traditional cooperators and defectors, as well as cooperators who punish defectors and defectors who punish cooperators. We show that if the synergistic effects are high enough to sustain cooperation based on network reciprocity alone, antisocial punishment does not deter public cooperation. Conversely, if synergistic effects are low and punishment is actively needed to sustain cooperation, antisocial punishment does is viable, but only if the cost-to-fine ratio is low. If the costs are relatively high, cooperation again dominates as a result of spatial pattern formation. Counterintuitively, defectors who do not punish cooperators, and are thus effectively second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment, form an active layer around punishing cooperators, which protects them against defectors that punish cooperators. A stable three-strategy phase that is sustained by the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance is also possible via the same route. The microscopic mechanism behind the reported evolutionary outcomes can be explained by the comparison of invasion rates that determine the stability of subsystem solutions. Our results reveal an unlikely evolutionary escape from adverse effects of antisocial punishment, and they provide a rationale for why second-order free-riding is not always an impediment to the evolutionary stability of punishment. Keywords: complex systems, interdisciplinary physics, punishment, cooperation Published in DKUM: 13.11.2017; Views: 1004; Downloads: 430 Full text (1,15 MB) This document has many files! More... |
10. Correlation of positive and negative reciprocity fails to confer an evolutionary advantage: phase transitions to elementary strategiesAttila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2013, original scientific article Abstract: Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavioris therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments. Keywords: public goods, punishment, reward, evolutionary games, collective phenomena, phase transitions, physics of social systems Published in DKUM: 03.08.2017; Views: 1174; Downloads: 352 Full text (667,46 KB) This document has many files! More... |