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The Darker the better : Identification of chemotype profile in soroses of local and introduced mulberry varieties with respect to the colour type
Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Jan Senekovič, Silvia Cappellozza, Maja Mikulič Petkovšek, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Mulberries are the "essence of the past", the so-called Proust effect, for the inhabitants of the sericultural regions who enthusiastically remember feeding silkworms with mulberry leaves and picking the different coloured fruits that were their favourite sweets in childhood. To determine the chemistry behind the colour and taste of mulberry soroses, the main metabolites of the local and introduced varieties were studied. The soroses were classified into five different colour types and the size parameters were determined. The main sugars identified were glucose and fructose, while the predominant organic acids were citric and malic acids, which were highest in the darker varieties, and fumaric and tartaric acids, which were highest in the lighter varieties. A total of 42 phenolic compounds were identified. The predominant phenolic acid was chlorogenic acid, followed by other caffeoylquinic acids and coumaroylquinic acids. The predominant anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. According to PCA analysis, the colour types showed a clear chemotype character. The sweet taste of the yellowish-white soroses was defined by 49% fructose, followed by 45% glucose and 6% organic acids. The sour character of the black genotypes was characterised by a lower sugar and higher (11%) organic acid content. The colour- and species-dependent effect was observed in the proportion of caffeoylquinic acids and quercetin glycosides, which decreased with increasing colour intensity from 60% of the total to 7%, and from 17% to 1%, respectively. An upward trend was observed for flavanols (5% to 29%) and anthocyanins, which accounted for 62% of the total phenolics in black varieties. This article gives an insight into the metabolite composition of mulberry soroses as the sweets of choice between light and sweet and dark and sour.
Keywords: mulberry soroses, sugars, organic acids, phenolics, anthocyannins
Published in DKUM: 20.02.2024; Views: 142; Downloads: 6
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Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus
Mateja Felicijan, Metka Novak, Nada Kraševec, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758) and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM.) C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP) cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus) and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica).
Keywords: antioxidants, ascorbate-glutathione system, blue-stain fungus, Norway spruce, phenolics, systemic acquired resistance
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2017; Views: 1678; Downloads: 425
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Potential of phenolic antioxidants
Iva Ružić, Mojca Škerget, Željko Knez, 2010, review article

Abstract: In vitro studies have shown a link between the consumption of food rich in (poly)phenols, especially flavonoids, and reduced risk of coronary heart diseases. Several flavonoids have been reported to prevent low density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation in vitro. The aim of our work was to determine antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of flavonoids myricetin,quercetin, rutin, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin gallate and to study the influence of chemical structure and flavonoid interactions on the ability to inhibit oxidation and scavenge free radicals. Two in vitro methods, i.e. oxidation of â-carotene in an emulsion system and DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, were applied. In addition, a review of in vivo studies that investigate the effectiveness of food flavonoids in reducing oxidative damage in human body was done and their results were analyzed and compared to in vitro results obtained in our laboratory. Although all tested flavonoids except apigenin showed strong antioxidant and antiradical properties in vitro, these findings can not be completely confirmed from the reviewed in vivo human studies since those results are sometimes contradictoryand inconsistent.
Keywords: phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, antiradical activity
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1343; Downloads: 76
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