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1.
Development of a methodology to calibrate a pedestrian microsimulation model : doctoral dissertation
Chiara Gruden, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Walking, as a mode of transport, is becoming widespread, in a world, where urban conglomerates are broadening and becoming denser. Modern lifestyle trends on a side, and eco-friendly policies on the other, push people into walking habits, increasing the need for a suitable, attractive, accessible, connected and safe walking infrastructure. To reach such a result, it is necessary to understand, what are the needs of the users of this infrastructure, taking into consideration the behavioral specificities and the safety needs of pedestrians. In this process pedestrian microsimulation models, surrogate safety techniques, and technologies able to measure specific traits of pedestrian dynamics play a central role. The firsts allow to reproduce repeatedly in a virtual environment a specific infrastructure and to study the response of pedestrians. Nevertheless, to be accurate and efficient, they need to go through long and tedious calibration and validation processes, that are often seen as an important limitation by technicians. Surrogate safety techniques are methods, that are based on the concept, that it is possible to predict the safety level of a location, using near accidents. The main advantage of such techniques is that they are proactive. Till this moment, these techniques have been mainly applied to on-field measurements and are primarily centered on motorized road users. Less interest has been shown for vulnerable road users, especially for pedestrians, who have been less extensively studied. Finally, an element that could highly affect pedestrian safety is their reaction time. Nevertheless, its measurement has long been a big issue. Eye-tracking technology could be one of the solutions, allowing to analyze the directions and objects fixated by pedestrians. These listed issues are also the topics that are addressed by this research work. Focusing on the study of the action of pedestrians while crossing the road on an unsignalized crosswalk set on a roundabout entry leg, the dissertation thesis aims at studying the crossing time, reaction time and surrogate safety aspects typical of pedestrians at the recalled location. The main purpose of the research work is to develop a methodology to calibrate pedestrian Social Force Model at a selected location, using a specifically formulated neural network as a tool to fine-tune model's behavioral parameters. Eight parameters have been chosen to be fine-tuned, five of those are related to pedestrian behavior and three of them are related to car-following behavior. After the selection of input parameters, a feedforward network has been formulated. Its application in the framework of the whole calibration process has brought to considerably positive results, finding a combination of input parameters that improved the performance of the microsimulation model of 37 % in comparison to the default one. The outputs of the calibrated model have been used to calculate three measures of surrogate safety, and also in this case results demonstrated an improvement in the calculation of surrogate safety measures when using the calibrated outcomes in comparison to their calculation on the “default” model outputs. Finally, reaction time measurement and prediction have been addressed by the thesis, in order to be able to describe pedestrian crossing action in its completeness. Quantitative eye-tracking outputs have been the starting point for the calculation of pedestrian reaction time at different locations, and they allowed to create a database of behavioral, geometric, regulatory and flow characteristics, which was the foundation for the formulation of a new prediction model for pedestrian reaction time. The prediction model, which consists of a cascade-correlation neural network, gave a good response to the learning and generalization steps, turning a 74 % correlation between the measured reaction time values and the predicted ones, and being able to follow the variability of these values.
Keywords: pedestrian, microsimulation model, calibration, neural network, surrogate safety indicators, reaction time.
Published in DKUM: 03.10.2022; Views: 784; Downloads: 96
.pdf Full text (5,93 MB)

2.
Analysis of safety inspections on pedestrian crossings from the road lighting point of view : master's thesis
Matea Šepoval, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: In this master's thesis we will analyse traffic safety at pedestrian crossings from the lighting point of view. The focus of the work will be on Croatia and Slovenia. Accidents at pedestrian crossings are the most common forms of accidents involving pedestrians, and although these countries are equal members of the European Union, their attitude towards road users may be different. Road accidents are one of the main indicators of road safety in every country and, based on statistics, suggestions for improvement will be made. By analysing the type of pedestrian crossings and the types of street lighting, we will identify and show their weaknesses. We will first present an analysis of traffic accidents involving pedestrians for certain periods for Slovenia and Croatia. This analysis is an indicator of actual traffic conditions related to pedestrian safety and non-motorized traffic. The statistical data presented in this master’s thesis were obtained from the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Croatia and the website of the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Road Safety, which is available with a large amount of data and analyses of traffic safety on a daily basis. Slovenian regulations clearly show the types and methods of designing pedestrian crossings, while Croatia lags behind in the details and explanations of the elements. In the end, an example of a comparison of pedestrian crossing lighting in the Republic of Croatia and Slovenia at locations in Bjelovar and Maribor will be presented. I will compare the brightness of pedestrian crossings and give an analysis of current traffic safety. Finally, solutions to improve the situation will be offered.
Keywords: traffic safety, pedestrian road crossing, traffic accident, traffic lighting
Published in DKUM: 01.10.2020; Views: 1084; Downloads: 104
.pdf Full text (1,50 MB)

3.
The use of micro-simulation in determining the capacity of a roundabout with a multi-channel pedestrian flow
Tomaž Tollazzi, Tone Lerher, Matjaž Šraml, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of the multi-channel pedestrian flow on the capacity of the one-lane roundabout, using discrete simulation methods. The proposed model is based on the theory of the expected time void between the units of pedestrian traffic flow, which have the priority when crossing the arm of the roundabout. The proposed model represents an upgrade of the previous research in the field of modelling traffic flows in the one-lane roundabout. While the previous model of the pedestrian crossing is handled as the single-channel system in which the pedestrians arrive randomly from one side of the pedestrian crossing only, the proposed model deals with the multi-channel system in which the pedestrians arrive randomly from both sides of the pedestrian crossing. In thi sway the mathematical model can better illustrate the real conditions. The previous model considers only the disturbances of entry traffic flow of motorised vehicles caused by the pedestrian flow crossing the roundabout arm. The proposed model considers the disturbances caused by the circular traffic flow of motorised vehicles as well. A simulation analysis has been conducted on the roundabout at Koroška Street in Maribor, in which the counting of the motorised traffic flow and the pedestrian flow has been performed in the morning peek hour. The results of the analysis have indicated a high reserve of the capacity for pedestrians who arrive from the left and right sides of the roundabout with regard to motorised vehicles in the analysed arm of the roundabout. The real reserve of the capacity would otherwise be smaller in case of enlargement of the motorised vehicle flow in the future. Nevertheless it would be high enough for an undisturbed traffic flow of motorised vehicles through the roundabout to be possible. The presented methodology represents a practicable and adaptable tool for planning the roundabout capacity in practice and for the sensitivity analysis of individual variables on the throughput capacity of the roundabout.
Keywords: roundabout, pedestrian flow, traffic flow modeling, simulation models
Published in DKUM: 31.05.2012; Views: 2040; Downloads: 55
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