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Internal oxidation of Cu-C and Ag-C composites
Gabrijela Čevnik, Gorazd Kosec, Ladislav Kosec, Rebeka Rudolf, Borut Kosec, Ivan Anžel, 2008, short scientific article

Abstract: The internal oxidation in copper-carbon and silver-carbon composites occurs when they are exposed to air or oxygen at high temperature. Solubility of carbon in copper or in silver is very low. The kinetics of oxidation at high temperature and activation energy were determined and the mechanism of internal oxidation was analysed. The kinetics of internal oxidation was determined for both cases and it is depended from the diffusion of oxygen following parabolic time dependence according to Wagner's theory. The activation energy for Cu-C composite is 70.5 kJ/mol, and for Ag-C composite is 50.1 kJ/mol, what is in both cases close to the activation energy for the volume diffusion of oxygen in copper or in silver. In both cases gas products are formed during the internal oxidation of composites. In the internal oxidation zone pores, bubbles occur. The carbon oxidates directly with the oxygen from solid solution as long there is a contact, which breaks down with the presence of gas products. Then the oxidation occurs over the gas mixture of CO and CO2.Pri visokih temperaturah kompoziti bakra in srebra z ogljikom na zraku ali v kisiku reagirajo po mehanizmu notranje oksidacije. Topnost ogljika v trdnem bakru in trdnem srebru je zelo majhna. Analizirali smo kinetiko oksidacije kompozitov, določili aktivacijsko energijo in mehanizem notranje oksidacije. Kinetika oksidacije je pri obeh skupinah materialov odvisna od difuzije kisika in sledi parabolični odvisnosti od časa v skladu z Wagnerjevo teorijo. Aktivacijska energija procesa je za kompozit Cu-C enaka 70,5 kJ/mol, za kompozit Ag-C pa 50,1 kJ/mol, kar je blizu aktivacijski energiji za volumsko difuzijo kisika v trdnem bakru oziroma srebru. Pri oksidaciji kompozita nastajajo plinski produkti. Oksidacija ogljika poteka neposredno s kisikom iz trdne raztopine, ko pa se zaradi nastanka plinske faze stik prekine, pa preko plinske zmesi CO in CO2.
Keywords: internal oxidation, internal oxidation zone, composite, copper, silver, diffusion, kinetics
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1206; Downloads: 15
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Laundry wastewater treatment using coagulation and membrane filtration
Sonja Šostar-Turk, Irena Petrinić, Marjana Simonič, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents the results obtained from laundry wastewater treatment using conventional methods namely precipitation/coagulation and the flocculation process with adsorption on granular-activated carbon (GAC) and an alternative method, membrane filtrations, namely ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Chemical analyses showed that parameter values of untreated wastewater like temperature, pH, sediment substances, total nitrogen and phosphorous, COD, BOD5, and the amount of anion surfactants had been exceeded in regard to Slovenian regulation. These regulations can be used as requirements for wastewater reuse and make treated wastewater an available source for the existing water supply. The study of conventional treatment was based on a flocculation with Al2(SO4)3 18H2O and adsorption on GAC. Membrane filtrations were studied on a pilot wastewater treatment plant: ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) units. The membranes used in this experiment were ceramic UF membrane and spiral wounded - polyethersulfone- RO membranes. The quality of the wastewater was improved by both methods and the specifications of a concentration limit for emission into water were confirmed. The disadvantage of GAC is that there is no possibility of any kind of selection, which is essential for recycling and re-use, while permeate coming from RO met the required regulation as well as requirements for reusing in washing process. However, the economical analyses showed that the membrane filtrations are more expensive compared to the GAC treatment process.
Keywords: laundries, washing of textiles, waste waters, advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, membrane filtration, coagulation
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1563; Downloads: 82
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Analysis of the oxidation of cellulose fibres by titration and XPS
Lidija Fras Zemljič, Leena Sisko Johansson, Peer Stenius, Janne Laine, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Volker Ribitsch, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of selective oxidation on the surface properties of cotton cellulose fibres. Four different methods to evaluate the accessibility, nature and content of ionisable acidic groups (charge) in the fibres were applied: potentiometric and conductometric titrations, polyelectrolyte adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results from this combination of methods show that two processes take place when the oxidation method is applied: elimination of low molecular mass non-cellulosic compounds and formation of new acidic groups in the cellulose chains. Which of these processes is predominating depends on oxidation time, but the first one is initially more important. Polyelectrolyte adsorption and XPS show that the surface concentration of acidic groups is considerably lower than the bulk concentration, i.e. during oxidation the content of carboxyl groups in the surface region decreases, while it increases in amorphous regions. The decrease is due to the dissolution of low molecular weight compounds; the increase is due to the formation of new acidic groups. The use of titration methods in combination with XPS appears to be a very useful tool for identification of the formation and distribution of ionic groups in cotton fibres and their surfaces.
Keywords: textile fibres, cotton fibres, cellulose fibres, oxidation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, acid groups in fibres
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1357; Downloads: 71
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Mild oxidation of cellulose fibers using dioxygen as ultimate oxidizing agent
Gabriela Biliuta, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Valeria Harabagiu, Sergiu Coseri, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Two types of regenerate cellulose fibres were oxidized under mild conditions, by using N-hydroxyphthalimide as catalyst and molecular oxygen as ultimate oxidizing agent. The amounts of negatively charged groups introduced were determined by means of potentiometric titration. The degree of polymerization and molar mass of the oxidized fibres determined viscosimetrically, has been found to be almost unaffected during oxidation.
Keywords: viscose fibers, modal fibers, oxidation, N-hydroxyphthalimide, NHPI, phthalimide-N-oxyl radical, PINO
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 977; Downloads: 31
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Characterization of amino groups for cotton fibers coated with chitosan
Lidija Fras Zemljič, Simona Strnad, Olivera Šauperl, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The adsorption of chitosan onto cellulose cotton fibers introduces antimicrobial properties, mainly created by the amount and location of amino groups. Therefore, it is important to be able to analyze both parameters, especially in a heterogeneous system, namely cotton fibers coated with chitosan. In this research, three different analytical techniques were applied to determine amino groups of cotton fibers coated with chitosan. The number of positively charged groups was determined indirectly by the spectrophotometric method using Acid Orange 7 dye, and the use of polyelectrolyte titration. In addition, the chemical surface composition regarding non-modified, as well as modified cotton fibers (coated with chitosan), was investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results from a combination of these methods show that chitosan treatment introduces more than 14 mmol/kg of accessible amino groups onto the cotton fibers. The results were in good agreement with the results of XPS. The use of spectrophotometric and titration methods in combination with XPS appears to be a very useful tool for identifying the formation of amino groups in modified cotton fibers and their surfaces.
Keywords: cotton, cellulose, oxidation, chitosan, amino-groups, titration, XPS
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1065; Downloads: 104
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Ecological alternatives to the reduction and oxidation processes in dyeing with vat and sulphur dyes
Mojca Božič, Vanja Kokol, 2008, review article

Abstract: This article gives a summary of the most commonly used ecologically unfriendly processes for the reduction and oxidation of vat and sulphur dyes. It also describes the new alternatives that are in the development stage and could be important in the near future. Sodium dithionite as the dominant reducing agent produces large amounts of sodium sulphate, and also toxic sulphite and thiosulphate as by-products. Consequently, high amounts of hydrogen peroxide and alkali are required for the treatment of effluents, which add to the cost of the process. Attempts have been made to use organic biodegradable reducing agents, enzymes, catalytic hydrogenation, and also indirect or direct, electrochemical reductive methods that employ a redox mediator (electron-carrier). The reduction has also been carried out via the dye radical molecule or, in the case of indigo, by direct electrochemical reduction using graphite as the electrode material. Physical techniques, for example using ultrasound, magnetic fields or UV have been shown to be effective only when used to accelerate methods using classical reduction and oxidation processes. However, although these methods offer some environmental benefits, there is still no satisfactory alternative reducing and/or oxidising agent available today.
Keywords: textile dyeing, vat dyes, sulphur dyes, reduction, oxidation, catalysis, ecology, organic agents, electrochemistry, ultrasound, magnetic field, UV application, biotechnology
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1333; Downloads: 69
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In-situ monitoring of internal oxidation of dillute alloys
Mihael Brunčko, Ivan Anžel, Albert C. Kneissl, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a non-destructive measurement method that enables identification and characterization of phenomena during internal oxidation of metallic materials as well as monitoring the kinetics of internal oxidation using "in-situ" electrical resistance measurements. A special laboratory device, based on the unique measurement cell, for the electrical resistance measurements at high temperatures and the model for electrical resistance transformation into an instantaneous microstructure were developed. To accomplish this, the process of internal oxidation was divided into the sequence of the key partial reactions that were presented in the model as the parallel andžor serial connected time variable resistors in the electrical circuit. The validity of the transformation model was experimentally confirmedby internal oxidation of Ag-Sn (2 at.% Sn) alloy at different oxidation temperatures in air atmosphere. The comparison of the results obtained by "in-situ" electrical resistance measurements with those obtained by metallographic analysis and Wagnerćs theory shows that the novel method presents a more effective tool for monitoring of internal oxidation kinetics. The method identifies also the microstructural defects and their influences onthe kinetics of internal oxidation.
Keywords: metallurgy, Ag-Sn alloy, internal oxidation, electrical resistance
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 895; Downloads: 22
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Crystal-structure and Mössbauer studies of Li[sub]1.746]Nd[sub]4.494FeO9[sub]9.493
Mihael Drofenik, Irena Ban, Darko Makovec, Darko Hanžel, Amalija Golobič, Ljubo Golič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The ▫$Li_1.746Nd_4.494FeO_9.493$▫ (LNF) ternary phase, located in the ▫$Li_2O$▫-rich part of the ▫$Li_2O-Nd_2O_3-Fe_2O_3$▫ system, crystallizes with a cubic unit cell of dimension and the space group Im3m. Refinement on F resulted in R=1.9%. The structure is comprised of a network of corners, edges and faces sharing the coordination polyhedra of neodymium. In between this skeleton the regular octahedra of oxygen-coordinated iron and trigonal prisms of lithium are located. The Mössbauer spectra revealed the presence of ▫$Fe^3+$▫, ▫$Fe^4+$▫ and ▫$Fe^5+$▫ ions distributed on two symmetry-independent lattice positions.
Keywords: crystal structure, ternary compounds, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, iron oxidation state, kristalna struktura, ternarne spojine, rentgenska difrakcija, Mössbauerjeva spektroskopija, rentgenska strukturna analiza
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1246; Downloads: 26
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Reactive dye decolorization using combined ultrasound/H2O2
Darinka Brodnjak-Vončina, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: The decolorization of six vinylsulphone reactive dyes (C.I. Reactive Yellow 15, C.I. Reactive Red 22, C.I. Reactive Blue 28, Remazol Dark Black N 150%, C.I. Reactive Blue 220 and C.I. Reactive Black 5) in aqueous solution was investigated using ultrasound and ultrasoundž hydrogen peroxide degradation. Two different concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide were used. The efficiency of the decolorization was evaluated by measuring the absorbance of the dye solutions. The results show that ultrasound treatment was significantly enhanced in the presence of H2O2.
Keywords: ultrasonic irradiation, decolorization, oxidation processes, hydrogen peroxide, reactive dyes, vinylsulphone reactive dyes
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1159; Downloads: 60
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