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1.
Selective distribution restrictions in the EU competition law
Daria Kostecka-Jurczyk, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The dynamic development of digital technologies favours the rapid increase the popularity of electronic commerce, but at the same time causes an ever-stronger competitive pressure, prompting manufacturers and wholesalers to use various tools for controlling the sales system, especially prices. They often impose various restrictions on commercial partners (e.g. distributors) by preventing them from using certain sales channels. However, it is difficult to delimit the legality of such sales restrictions. It is very difficult to find an answer to the question of where the appropriate demarcation line should be drawn that determines the violation of competition rules, especially in online sales. Regulation 330/2010 seems not to be tailored to the assessment of restrictions in online distribution channels. The aim of the article is to point out the lack of appropriate tools to assess the restrictions of internet sales. The article shows that there is currently no uniform approach by antitrust authorities, which in turn results in legal uncertainty. It seems that the amendment of Regulation 330/2010 should be considered and the market share threshold set out in it should be lowered, while at the same time ensuring that it will be an actual safe harbour for companies, including online distributors.
Keywords: anticompetitive agreements, block exemption regulation, competition law, online sales, selective distribution, vertical agreements
Published: 15.01.2021; Views: 155; Downloads: 0

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Online gambling under EU law
Janja Hojnik, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This article outlines some of the ambiguities arising from the endeavours of the EU Court to offer the national courts sufficiently clear interpretation of EU rules on free movement of services in respect of various national restrictions of online gambling that would enable them to make rulings in increasingly high numbers of cases in which foreign providers are restricted from accessing markets of EU Member States. It is submitted that this casuistic approach by the Court should not be considered as satisfying and that harmonising instruments should be adopted by the EU legislators, instead. Yet however, this is less realistic than ever before, as the Commission in situation of a total lack of the Member States' consensus stepped away from its efforts to pave the way to at least minimum standards of gambling offerings and provision of customers' protection, leaving it further to the EU and national courts to balance between controlled expansion and genuine diminution of gambling opportunities so as to weigh between free movement of services and opposing legitimate aims of the Member States.
Keywords: digital market, online betting, free movement of services, public interest, justifying restrictions on foreign provision of gambling
Published: 15.01.2021; Views: 74; Downloads: 4
URL Link to file

4.
Selected legal problems of online advertising
Aleksandra Nowak-Gruca, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyse the most important issues related to the latest forms of online advertising. In particular, appreciating the importance of online advertising in the development of the information society, the question is then raised about the legal limits of the admissibility of advertising, which is invasive, insistent or contains hidden meaning, inaccessible to the recipient's awareness of content. This issue has been presented from the perspective of European Union (EU) law, in the context of selected directives relevant for online advertising. The problem raised in the article deserves to be developed because we observe a sharp increase in the importance of the Internet, and the online advertising issue has not been the subject of comprehensive regulation in EU law.
Keywords: online advertising, native advertising, product placement, unfair competition, integrity in advertising
Published: 15.01.2021; Views: 49; Downloads: 23
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5.
Dejavniki uporabe spletnega in mobilnega bančništva pri starejših
Monika Gradišnik, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: Razvoj in napredek na področju tehnologije in interneta sta imela močan vpliv na elektronsko poslovanje, kar je bilo najprej zaznati pri elektronskem poslovanju v podjetjih in bankah. Banke so se osredotočile na razvoj elektronskega in mobilnega bančništva ter začele ponujati še dodatne storitve. Svojim komitentom so tako dostopne 24 ur na dan, in sicer vse dni v tednu. Porast prodaje pametnih telefonom je pripomogel tudi k napredku mobilnega bančništva. Ni banke v Sloveniji, ki ne bi nudila tako internetnega kot tudi mobilnega bančništva. Vsem imetnikom pametnih telefonov tako nudijo storitev mobilnega bančništva, kjer si komitent naloži aplikacijo in spremlja svoje poslovanje kjerkoli in kadarkoli.
Keywords: elektronsko bančništvo, internetno bančništvo, mobilno bančništvo, CRM, uporaba elektronskega bančništva pri starejših, Online banka, Mobilna banka GO!
Published: 20.11.2019; Views: 340; Downloads: 69
.pdf Full text (1,19 MB)

6.
Reisebuch vs. Reiseblog – Eine textsortenlinguistische und stilistische Analyse anhand ausgewählter Textbeispiele
Urška Knehtl, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: Reiseerlebnisse mit der Welt zu teilen ist heute eine sehr beliebte und häufige Aktivität. Menschen wollen über das Reisen schreiben und auch darüber lesen. Reiseerlebnisse können entweder online oder offline dargestellt werden. Eine der beliebtesten Textsorten sind Reisebücher und Reiseblogs. Da sie beide unterschiedlichen Medien angehören, gibt es zwischen ihnen Unterschiede. Reiseblogs präsentieren im Vergleich zu Reisebüchern eine interaktive Aktivität, weil auch die Leser mit ihren Kommentaren und Feedback zum Inhalt des Reiseblogs beitragen. Im Vordergrund der Magisterarbeit stehen die Analyse und der Vergleich der vier ausgewählten Beispielstexte: zwei Reisebücher und zwei Reiseblogs. Das Ziel ist zu erfahren, welche Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede es zwischen den Textsorten gibt und ob es auch innerhalb einer Textsorte zu Unterschieden kommen kann. Um dies herauszuarbeiten wird eine holistische Stilanalyse durchgeführt, wobei die Reisebücher und Reiseblogs auf der Makro-, Mezzo- und Mikroebene analysiert werden. Bei der Makroanalyse werden die Texte als Ganzheit beobachtet, wohingegen sie bei der Mezzo- und Mikroanalyse detailliert, nach einzelnen Textbausteinen, analysiert werden. Bei der Analyse wurde festgestellt, dass es zwischen den Textsorten und auch innerhalb der Textsorte Unterschiede gibt. Reiseblogs aktualisieren ihre Inhalte, was in Reisebüchern nicht möglich ist, Blogposts sind verlinkt und verwenden viele Elemente der Werbesprache. Ihren Lesern bieten sie auch eine Kontaktfunktion an, die es den Autoren ermöglicht mit ihren Lesern Kontakt aufnehmen zu können.
Keywords: Reisebuch, Reiseblog, Reiseliteratur, holistische Stilanalyse, Online-Textsorte, Makroanalyse, Mikroanalyse
Published: 18.07.2019; Views: 450; Downloads: 88
.pdf Full text (4,86 MB)

7.
Politeness in Online Discussion Forums: a Comparison Between English and Slovenian
Urška Knehtl, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: The main objective of this master’s thesis is to compare the use of politeness in English and Slovenian and to compare politeness that occurs in the selected topics of online discussion forums. Another objective is to analyse which politeness strategies are applicable in the selected online discussion forums and to determine why some of them are not applicable. The master’s thesis presents an analysis of 4 online discussion forums and 2 specific topics (health, relationships). 20 discussions were chosen for the analysis, which is based on Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory (1987). Positive politeness strategies, negative politeness strategies and off-record politeness strategies are determined in the analysis and the findings in English and Slovene forums are compared. The language of online discussion forums, the place of conversational computer-mediated communication, is comparable to oral communication. The findings suggest that the discussions of the online discussion forums therefore offer a great potential to analyse the use of politeness in a language. A comparison of the findings provides an insight into the use of politeness in English and Slovenian in the online discussion forums and the differences between them. The analysis shows that Brown and Levinson’s theory is applicable to both languages, which is not the case for all strategies. Several differences were found in the use of politeness, which is more often used in English.
Keywords: politeness, computer-mediated communication, online discussion forum, positive politeness, negative politeness, Brown and Levinson
Published: 19.03.2019; Views: 536; Downloads: 108
.pdf Full text (1,72 MB)

8.
The Influence of Usernames on the Perception of Gender in Online Communication
Alen Vugrinec, 2018, master's thesis

Abstract: The aims of this master´s thesis are to determine how certain usernames influence the perception of gender on online communication and to identify possible differences between the language of men and women used in online communication in the form of a forum. The theoretical part discusses at first the internet in general; its origins, how communication came to be on it, the characteristics of internet language and differences between communication in real-life and online. Then we turn our attention to differences between the language of men and women, which can occur in either face-to-face (or written) communication or in online communication in general. The empirical part focuses on the experiment conducted for the purpose of this thesis. This part of the thesis contains the methods of the experiment, the details of it, the analysis of the communication happening on the forum and the analysis of the questionnaires given to the participants of the experiment. This is followed by the discussion of the findings/results and the concluding thoughts. The findings of the study confirm all the hypotheses set in the thesis, i.e.: Hypothesis 1: the majority of the participants will not be able to guess correctly the gender of other participants in conversations with made-up usernames (Discussion 2). Hypothesis 2: there will be differences between the language of men and women in both types of conversations regardless of the type of username used. Hypothesis 3: participants regardless of gender will add more contributions to the forum in conversations with made-up usernames (Discussion 2) because of the anonymity.
Keywords: internet, online communication, language, username(s), difference, influence, experiment, men´s and women´s language, gender.
Published: 23.11.2018; Views: 580; Downloads: 80
.pdf Full text (1,96 MB)

9.
The online communication of corporate social responsibility in subsidiaries of multinational companies in Hungary
Richard Szanto, 2018, review article

Abstract: Background and Purpose: Many studies have explored the differences in the management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of multinational companies across the globe. The main question of the study was, are there differences between CSR practices between home country and host country operations? Design/Methodology/Approach: This study investigates the differences in online CSR communication between global corporate websites and the webpages of local subsidiaries in Hungary. The sample contains 70 multinational companies (MNCs) and their Hungarian subsidiaries. All the subsidiaries of the sample are listed amongst the largest 200 companies (based on turnover) in Hungary. Both the local (Hungarian) and the global internet sites of these MNCs were visited, and pre-defined categories were sought on the corporate websites. The presence/lack of these CSR themes and topics on the websites were recorded. Results: The findings show that online CSR disclosure of the subsidiaries is usually more limited than the global communication. Moreover, distance from the headquarters seems to matter, the farther the headquarters of the MNC is located, the narrower CSR presence on the websites of the local subsidiary can be observed. Conclusion: The paper’s main contribution is to deepen our knowledge about the CSR strategies of the multinational companies across their operations. It was confirmed that their CSR practices significantly differ between the host and home countries.
Keywords: CSR, local subsidiaries, multinational companies, online communication
Published: 10.10.2018; Views: 615; Downloads: 219
.pdf Full text (477,47 KB)
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10.
Impact of fear of identity theft and perceived risk on online purchase intention
Gašper Jordan, Robert Leskovar, Miha Marič, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background and Purpose: Online activities are present in almost every aspect of people’s daily lives. Online purchases are also increasing each year and therefore it is important to investigate what influences online purchase intentions. Online purchase intentions are among everything else, influenced by the fear of identity theft and perceived risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: The online survey was conducted among 190 participants from Slovenia. The relations between the constructs of fear of financial losses, fear of reputational damage, perceived risk and online purchase intention were investigated. Results: The research showed that the relations between the constructs of fear of financial losses, fear of reputational damage, perceived risk are positive and the relation between the constructs of perceived risk and online purchase intention were negative. All of the relations were statistically significant. Conclusion: Understanding the impact of fear of identity theft and perceived risk on online purchase intention can be helpful for online sellers, because with these findings they can manage this fear and perceived risk to increase online purchase intention and address the risks accordingly. Online sellers should therefore regard new findings from the field of online sales. If an online store wants to have success in sales, they should consider all sides of customers’ desires as well as their restraints.
Keywords: e-commerce, fear of identity theft, online purchase intention
Published: 10.10.2018; Views: 918; Downloads: 273
.pdf Full text (344,28 KB)
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