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The delayed surplus response for hops related to market dynamics
Douglas MacKinnon, Martin Pavlovič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The cyclical nature of hop market pricing has been recorded since the 16th century, but the effect had never previously been documented or quantified. Using Bayesian inference in an analysis of data regarding the US hop industry collected and published by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) it was possible to measure the change of inventory and acreage responsiveness to price during periods of free and markets regulated through the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPR). The data demonstrated a delayed, reduced, or total lack of responsiveness in the change of direction of acreage and inventory in response to directional changes in season average price (SAP) during free market periods. This reaction was referred to as the delayed surplus response (DSR). The data also demonstrated the absence of the DSR during periods in which proprietary varieties reached greater than 50% of US acreage and production. Patented plant varieties offer a legal monopoly over that intellectual property (IP). The absence of the DSR during periods in which a majority of US acreage and production were proprietary indicated a strong degree of control over supply. By extension, the owners of proprietary varieties demonstrated the ability to influence price at desired levels.
Keywords: Bayesian inference, brewing industry, disequilibrium, hop market, proprietary variety
Published in DKUM: 11.07.2024; Views: 11; Downloads: 0
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The interplay of restaurant SMEs' entrepreneurial and environmental characteristics, management of the requisite assets, and operational efficiency
Tanja Planinc, Marko Kukanja, Anja Žnidaršič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background/Purpose: SMEs are subject to different factors in the business environments that influence their business performance. Considering the importance of restaurants’ environmental characteristics, entrepreneurs can also, through their entrepreneurial characteristics, influence SMEsʼ management of the requisite assets (MRA). Accordingly, this study examines the influence of restaurant SMEs’ entrepreneurial (self-efficacy, orientation, and demographics) and environmental (location, size, and competition) characteristics on MRA and, consequently, on SMEs’ operational efficiency. Methods: Primary data relating to the environmental (location, size, and competition) and entrepreneurial (self-efficacy, orientation, and demographic) characteristics were obtained using a survey questionnaire, while the secondary data were obtained from SMEs’ official financial reports. The sample consists of 266 restaurant SMEs in the Republic of Slovenia. Efficiency was analysed using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the research model. Results: The results indicate that environmental characteristics have a much more significant impact on MRA than entrepreneurial characteristics. Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and most demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, and experience) proved not to influence significantly MRA and, consequently, SMEs’ operational efficiency. Conclusion: SMEs’ external environment is generally not directly influenced by managerial decisions. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the influence of the internal environment through an active development of entrepreneurial characteristics, which could result in a more effective MRA and higher efficiency. The conclusion provides suggestions for future research and valuable information for entrepreneurs, academia, and policymakers.
Keywords: SMEs, restaurant industry, Slovenia, efficiency, environmental and entrepreneurial characteristics, requisite assets
Published in DKUM: 28.06.2024; Views: 358; Downloads: 2
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The reusage of water and steam utilities by using the integrated fork technique and the complete circular economy
Anita Kovač Kralj, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The reusage of water and steam utilities plays a key role in the mitigation of decarbonising and climate change, including reduced fossil-fuel energy consumption and reducing the dependence on natural gas. The water condensates can be used for utility and heat-recovery systems by an integrated fork technique, achieving economic benefits and a complete circular economy, presented in two steps. The main novelty of this fork technique includes the determination of a regulated heat flow rate for the integration between the dryer and evaporator, which enables an evaporation of the same water mass flow as by the existing evaporating system, which is performed in the first step. The main significance of this technique presents the manner of a fork system as a superstructure for waste condensates’ collection separately and combinedly, and sustainable reusage's alternatives of the condensates, such as steam or electricity cogeneration, presented in the second step. This technique is carried out in two steps, including real-simulated results using an Aspen Plus® simulator. This approach is illustrated using an existing sugar production, which is selected as the waste mass and energy reusage from the evaporator and dryer for low-pressure steam production, generating a possible increase profit of 1.9 MEUR/a. The saving of the heat flow rate after the integrated dryer with evaporator should be 15,816 kW, or 73 %, presenting as a percentage.
Keywords: steam utility, water condensate, fork technique, circular economy, integrated units, food industry
Published in DKUM: 10.05.2024; Views: 184; Downloads: 7
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Proprietary varieties’ influence on economics and competitiveness in land use within the hop industry
Douglas MacKinnon, Martin Pavlovič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: To evaluate changes to hop industry concentration and competitiveness the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) was used. The ownership of hop proprietary varieties, their acreage and production were compared with public varieties. Market share for each proprietary hop variety acreage and production was calculated between 2000 and 2020. The quantity of land under centralized control in the U.S. hop industry due to increased proprietary variety acreage between 2000 and 2020 was quantified. Assuming tacit collusion between the participants in the oligopoly, the HHI enabled us to quantify the portion of land under oligopoly control. The HHI analysis of hop acreage and hop production demonstrated that market concentration rose rapidly between the years 2010 (0.0376 and 0.0729) and 2020 (0.4927 and 0.5394). This resulted in decreasing business competitiveness within the market during this period caused primarily by rapid consolidation of ownership during increased proprietary variety acreage and production increases. Calculations revealed that in 2016 a tipping point had been reached concerning market concentration, which resulted in higher sustained season average prices of hops—a key raw material in brewing.
Keywords: hop industry, varieties, market concentration, intellectual property, prices
Published in DKUM: 21.03.2024; Views: 148; Downloads: 8
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Customising tourism experiences with use of advanced technologies, example of collaboration impact token and digital online tourist identity
Urška Starc Peceny, Tomi Ilijaš, 2021, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Nowadays, data on tourist profiles are created by large platforms that exchange and trade the collected data with each other without sharing it with service providers (hotels, restaurants, etc.). Providers are thus increasingly becoming mere "executors" and cannot devote themselves to the guest as they once did. Using the example of Collaboration Impact Token and Digital Online Tourist Identity, the article suggests the development of a sys-tem with use of key enabling technologies from Industry 4.0 that will offer guests a personalised service, reward them for positive behavior if they are contributing to the positive effects of tourism and redirect them on less burdened areas with the aim to offer a significantly better tourist experience and the development of more balanced sustainable development.
Keywords: innovative incentives, tourism 4.0, digitalising collaboration, sustainability, Industry 4.0
Published in DKUM: 24.01.2024; Views: 178; Downloads: 7
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Simultaneous use of digital technologies and industrial robots in manufacturing firms
Klemen Kovič, Robert Ojsteršek, Iztok Palčič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents the use of digital technologies and industrial robots in manufacturing firms. More importantly, we look at the relationship between the use of digital technologies and industrial robots within the Industry 4.0 concept. We also use a specific Industry 4.0 Readiness index to assess manufacturing firms’ Industry 4.0 readiness level and analyze the relationship between the achieved readiness level and the use of industrial robots. The research is based on data from 118 manufacturing firms from a European Manufacturing Survey. Based on statistical analysis, we present the results that show a significant correlation between the use of specific digital technologies and two types of industrial robots. Our study also points out that manufacturing firms with a higher Industry 4.0 readiness level tend to use industrial robots more frequently.
Keywords: digital technology, industrial robot, industry 4.0, manufacturing firms, European manufacturing survey, readiness index
Published in DKUM: 11.12.2023; Views: 364; Downloads: 26
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Managing the complexity of empty container movements through repositioning strategies and routing practices under certain demand and supply : doctoral dissertation
Alaa Abdelshafie, 2023, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Over the past decades, container transportation management has become an important part of the global maritime industry. Due to an ever-increasing movement of containers across the globe in line with the economic boom, the trade imbalance and issues related to empty containers have become inevitable. The accumulation of empty containers in specific ports not only causes a waste of money but also increases the environmental footprint. Accordingly, the urgent need for empty container management has been gaining more attention than ever before, as the shipping companies recognized that more revenues are always derived from a good repositioning strategy. In this respect, this thesis described state-of-the-art of empty container management, focusing on the practices concerning the movement of empty containers that are varied between organizational policies, technical solutions, and optimization applications. With the development of computer-aided systems, the combination of optimization and simulation models has been proposed to tackle the maritime empty container problem. The thesis shows how the strengths of optimization-based simulation can be integrated to provide high-quality solutions with low computational costs. Agent-based modelling was developed to model the global movements of empty containers, providing realistic details of interactions among entities and characteristics of components within the system. The model was applied between ports in the Middle East and Asia for one of the biggest shipping lines worldwide. By using simulated annealing (SA), the best sequence for moving containers can be determined. The results comparison demonstrate that the proposed optimised repositioning strategy can significantly reduce the shipping line’s costs and make full use of empty containers in the planning horizon.
Keywords: shipping industry, container transportation management, empty container repositioning, simulation, optimization, agent-based modelling
Published in DKUM: 08.12.2023; Views: 512; Downloads: 18
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Operational crisis management techniques in the catering industry in times of recession : the case of the municipality of Piran
Marko Kukanja, Tanja Planinc, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: This study examines crisis management techniques in the catering industry. The sur- vey was conducted in the municipality of Piran, the most developed Slovenian municipality in terms of tourism and an important tourist center in the northern Mediterranean. This paper investigates the response of the catering industry to the economic crisis by analyzing the use of different micro-level crisis practices in the catering industry. The study uses a questionnaire to evaluate the importance and usage of different crisis management techniques in the catering industry. The findings indicate a high level of inconsistency between the importance and usage of crisis management techniques. Government assistance is by far the most important and most used technique in times of crisis. Suggestions for future research and useful information for managers of catering facilities are provided.
Keywords: recession, crisis management, catering industry, municipality of Piran
Published in DKUM: 06.09.2023; Views: 241; Downloads: 0

Economic analysis of the cultural and creative industries in Slovenia
Nika Murovec, Damjan Kavaš, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents results of the qualitative and quantitative economic analyses of the cultural and creative industries (CCI), which were carried outwithin two projects: "Creative Cities" and "The state of design, with a focus on industrial design, as a part of creative industries, and best international practices as a foundation for fostering this sector in Slovenia." This paper tacked the several methodological issues related to CCI analysis by combining different methodological approaches in order to improve their reliability. The main results of the public sector, industrial, occupational, and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analyses are described. CCI in Slovenia presented as a potential that has not been fully mobilised. In order to further develop CCI and exploit the economic potential, a comprehensive policy support of CCI at the local, national, and EU levels is needed.
Keywords: creativeness, culture, industry, economic analysis, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 06.09.2023; Views: 236; Downloads: 0

Tourism demand in Tunisia : a VECM approach
Djamal Dekkiche, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This research aimed to study the determinants of tourism demand in Tunisia from 1995 to 2019 with four independent variables: gross domestic product, consumer price index, the real exchange rate, and air transport passengers carried. The research employed the Unit root test, Co-integration test, and Vector Error Correction model (VECM) to examine the variables' short- and long-run relationship dynamics. The results show that co-integrating relations exist among the variables; all independent variables negatively impact tourism demand except Air transport. Depending on the results obtained, policymakers should be aware of the negative effect of the country's political instability on the extent of external tourism demand. In this sense, the government must restore political stability to encourage tourists to visit Tunisia. Future studies should consider factors such as the economy's trade openness and oil prices.
Keywords: tourism industry, tourism demand, VECM, Co-integration, Tunisia
Published in DKUM: 05.09.2023; Views: 227; Downloads: 3
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