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Sensor for injection rate measurements
Milan Marčič, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tellus nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membraneand its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstonećs bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.
Keywords: thermodynamics, sensors, Diesel engines, nozzles, injection, measurements
Published in DKUM: 22.06.2017; Views: 1622; Downloads: 339
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Comparison of the effectiveness of standard and drift-reducing nozzles for control of some pests of apple
Mario Lešnik, Cvetka Pintar, Aleksandra Lobnik, Mitja Kolar, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: A comparison of the biological efficacy of pesticides applied against some apple pests with standard versus drift-reducing nozzles was made in trials in intensive orchards in Slovenia. Standard and drift-reducing nozzles were compared by applying 350 L spray per hectare. No significant differences in acaricide/insecticide efficacy between the types of nozzles could be observed when controlling fruit tree red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) and apple rosy aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea). However, drift-reducing nozzles reduced the efficacy of insecticides against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) and apple leaf miner (Leucoptera malifoliella).
Keywords: apple, spraying, drift-reducing nozzles, biological efficacy, insecticides, Aphis pomi, Cydia pomonella, Dysaphis plantaginea, Leucoptera malifoliella, Panonychus ulmi
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 1910; Downloads: 114
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