Defamiliarization of social norms and breaking stereotypes on autism in The Speed of DarkŠpela Pačnik
, 2012, undergraduate thesis
Abstract: Lately there has been a visible increase in the number of fictional autistic characters. These representations of autism, on the one hand, help in spreading the awareness of autism among people, but may also lead to false beliefs about autistic society, on the other. The thesis is an attempt to explore the way Elizabeth Moon represents the autistic mind in her novel The Speed of Dark. I will examine how the literary technique of defamiliarization contributes to her highly realistic portrayal of an individual with autism, especially to the way he perceives social norms. I will also prove that her novel challenges several stereotypes about autism.
Keywords: representations of autism, defamiliarization, social norms, stereotypes
Published: 11.06.2012; Views: 1190; Downloads: 58
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Workloads and standard time norms in garment engineeringZvonko Dragičević
, Daniela Zavec Pavlinič
, Jelka Geršak
, 2002, original scientific article
Abstract: Posibilities of new methods for measuring loading and standard time norms are presented, as applied in the field of garment engineering. Measurements deescribed are performed on modern measuring equipment designed to measure and perform computer analysis of temporal values of processing parameters in sewing operation and simultaneously record in two planes using a video system. The measuring system described was used to investigate sewing operation for the seam on a ladies' fashion suit, 52 cm long. For the operation investigated, method of work employing the MTM (Methods Time Measurements) system with analysis of basic movements was selected. The MTM system used shows that normal time for the operation in question is around 429.3 TMU (15.5 s). Investigations of workload imposed on the worker according to the OADM method were done simultaneously, and total ergonomic loading coefficients of Ker=0.082 was established, thus determining the time necessary to organise the process of work as 464.5 TMU (16.7 s). Simultaneous measurements of time and dynamic changes of processing parameters, as well as logical sets of movements, are important for defining favourable operation structures, time norms ergonomically designed systems of work and workplaces in garment engineering, as early as in the phase of designing operation. The investigations described make possible to find optimal distribution of working elements and zones of reach important for ergonomic designing and/or re-designing of workplaces, which results in considerably reduced level of fatigue in work optimal quality level, higher degree of utilisation of equipment installed and lower manufacturing costs.
Keywords: garment engineering, sewing, standard time norms, norms, time study, work study, MTM, motion timestudy measurement
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 920; Downloads: 29
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INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS: PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS UNDER PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAWAna Povh
, 2014, undergraduate thesis
Abstract: Preceeding work is analysing a highly problematic field of public international law, where in one actual state several principles of international law, humanitarian legal rules, international political interests and humanitarian conscience are coliding intensely. This is the case of civil wars where human rights of civilians are violated on a massive scale. Since they do not include a foreign element by the nature, possibilities of international protection are very lessened. Apathy of the international community and the failure to enforce international law are both permitting for human suffering of unimaginable extensions taking place in immediate vicinity of the 'developed world'.
Rules of conduct in the international community are being set by the international public law, which serves in interests of States. Until inclusion of international organisations with supranational authorities legal order was therefore designed only by their will. Later development has made it possible that rules were created by global consensus which suggested creation of norms with humanitarian nature. This leads to conclusion that there is no centralised legislator present in the international sphere and that obligatory norms are hard to find. Nevertheless humanitarian norms with cogent nature are still present, their uncovery is linked to the source from which they derive. Determining the source therefore leads to determination of those humanitarian rules that subjects need to respect in all circumstances. Such enforcement inside State's territorial integrity sadly still represents a meeting point for two contradictoring but hierarchally ecvivalent principles of international order, resulting in unsanctionising of mass breaches of international humanitarian rules. These two principles are the principle of State's sovereignty and the principle for respect of human rights and they result in such international policy which places the primal responsibilty for ensuring the respect of human rights in the hands of a State. Any external intervention is almost impossible.Consequences of such international understanding are vividly seen in civil or internal conflicts where protection of civilian population is in sole discretion of the warring parties.
Still, universally applicable international law which can not be violated even in the times of war exists. Determination of humanitarian rules which have to be performed on the field, is dependant on the qualification of the sources from which they derive. International treaties, by their nature being obligatory for their signatories, comprise the first group of sources. Second group is producing rules which are waiting for bestowment of this quality and their possible cogency is dependant on State practice and on the so-called common legal sense of obligation. Most important of them is international customary law which produces rules, essential for filling those legal holes, left behind by international treaties. Moreover they are obligatory for every Party involved, even though they have not expressed their commitment. Together with universal human rights, provided by international human rights law, they represent a cornerstone of international legal order for the field of internal armed conflicts. Their enforcement is in the most benefit of civilian population.
Keywords: International public law, international humanitarian law, human rights law, internal armed conflicts, non-international armed conflicts, fundamental guarantees, war, Geneva Conventions, United Nations, civilian population, peremptory norms, customary law.
Published: 09.06.2014; Views: 873; Downloads: 47
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G-invariant norms and bicircular projectionsMaja Fošner
, Dijana Ilišević
, Chi-Kwong Li
, 2007, original scientific article
Abstract: It is shown that for many finite dimensional normed vector spaces ▫$V$▫ over ▫$Cc$▫, a linear projection ▫$P: V to V$▫ will have nice structure if ▫$P + lambda (I-P)$▫ is an isometry for some complex unit not equal to one. From these results, one can readily determine the structure of bicircular projections, i.e., those linear projections ▫$P$▫ such that ▫$P + mu (I - P)$▫ is an isometry for every complex unit ▫$mu$▫. The key ingredient in the proofs is the knowledge of the isometry group of the given norm. The proof techniques also apply to real vector spaces. In such cases, characterizations are given to linear projections ▫$P$▫ such that ▫$P - (I - P) = 2P - I$▫ is an isometry.
Keywords: bicircular projection, symmetric norms, unitarily invariant norms, unitary congruence invariant norms, unitary similarity invariant norms
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 266; Downloads: 45
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