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Stochastic resonance on excitable small-world networks via a pacemaker
Matjaž Perc, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: We show that the correlation between the frequency of subthreshold pacemaker activity and the response of an excitable array is resonantly dependent on the intensity of additive spatiotemporal noise. Thereby, the effect of the underlying network, defining the interactions among excitable units, largely depends on the coupling strength. Only for intermediate coupling strengths is the small world property able to enhance the stochastic resonance, whereas for smaller and larger couplings the impact of the transition from diffusive to random networks is less profound. Thus, the optimal interplay between a localized source of weak rhythmic activity and the response of the whole array demands a delicate balance between the strength of excitation transfer and the effectiveness of the network structure to support it.
Keywords: stochastic resonance, small-world networks, cardiology, neurophysiology, nonlinear dynamical systems, spatiotemporal phenomena
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1304; Downloads: 73
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The dynamics of human gait
Matjaž Perc, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: We analyse the dynamics of human gait with simple nonlinear time series analysis methods that are appropriate for undergraduate courses. We show that short continuous recordings of the human locomotory apparatus possess properties typical of deterministic chaotic systems. To facilitate interest and enable the reproduction of presented results, as well as to promote applications of nonlinear time series analysis to other experimental systems, we provide user-friendly programs for each implemented method. Thus, we provide new insights into the dynamics of human locomotion, and make an effort to ease the inclusion of nonlinear time series analysis methods into the curriculum at an early stage of the educational process.
Keywords: dynamic systems, chaotic systems, nonlinear dynamics, human gait, human locomotion
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1301; Downloads: 27
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Encyclopedia of complexity and systems science
dictionary, encyclopaedia, lexicon, manual, atlas, map

Abstract: Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, and genetic algorithms. Examples of near-term problems and major unknowns that can be approached through complexity and systems science include: The structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the integration of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics as systems biology; human longevity limits; the limits of computing; sustainability of life on earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters; the dynamics of turbulent flows; lasers or fluids in physics, microprocessor design; macromolecular assembly in chemistry and biophysics; brain functions in cognitive neuroscience; climate change; ecosystem management; traffic management; and business cycles. All these seemingly quite different kinds of structure formation have a number of important features and underlying structures in common. These deep structural similarities can be exploited to transfer analytical methods and understanding from one field to another. This unique work will extend the influence of complexity and system science to a much wider audience than has been possible to date.
Keywords: cellular automata, complex networks, computational nanoscience, ecological complexity, ergodic theory, fractals, game theory, granular computing, graph theory, intelligent systems, perturbation theory, quantum information science, system dynamics, traffic management, chaos, climate modelling, complex systems, dynamical sistems, fuzzy theory systems, nonlinear systems, soft computing, stochastic processes, synergetics, self-organization, systems biology, systems science
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1690; Downloads: 90
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Extended Lindstedt-Poincare method for non-stationary resonances of dynamical systems with cubic nonlinearit
Rudi Pušenjak, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents the extended Lindstedt-Poincare (EL-P) method, which applies multiple time variables to treat non-stationary oscillations arising in dynamical systems with cubic nonlinearities due to the slowly varied excitation parameters. The method is applied extensively in research of non-stationary vibrations of clamped-hinged beams. Recognizing the aperiodic nature of non-stationary oscillations, the new formulation is presented by adding an additional, slow time scale beside time scales of the nonlinear system, which generally correspond to the incommensurate nonlinear frequencies of the response. Using this concept, a generalized approach of the study to the passage through fundamental, superharmonic and subharmonic resonances is presented in the paper. Effects of slowly varying excitation frequency and slowly varying excitation amplitude on the non-stationary oscillations are studied with the computation of deviations from the stationary response. Although the method is formulated for N-dof dynamical systems having weak cubic nonlinearities, it is applied for non-stationary vibrations, where two-mode shape approximation of damped and undamped clamped-hinged beam, respectively, is used and the simultaneous appearance of internal resonance is taken into account. Stability analysis of stationary solutions is performed and comparisons of stationary resonance curves by results obtained with the incremental harmonic balance (IHB) method show good agreement. The passage through the fundamental resonance of damped and undamped clamped-hinged beam, respectively, is investigated in detail.
Keywords: dynamical systems with cubic nonlinearities, nonlinear oscillations, nonstationary nonlinear oscillations, time scales, excitation frequency, resonance, Lindstedt-Poincare method
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1356; Downloads: 23
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Stochastic resonance in soft matter systems : combined effects of static and dynamic disorder
Matjaž Perc, Marko Gosak, Samo Kralj, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: We study the impact of static and dynamic disorder on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a representative soft matter system. Due to their extreme susceptibility to weak perturbations, soft matter systems appear to be excellent candidates for the observation of SR. Indeed, we derive generic SR equations from a polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (LC) cell, which is a typical soft matter representative constituting one of the basic components in several electro-optic applications. We generalize these equations further in order to study an even broader class of qualitatively different systems, especially disclosing the influence of different types of static disorder and interaction ranges amongst LC molecules on the SR response. We determine the required conditions for the observation of SR in the examined system, and moreover, reveal that a random field type static disorder yields qualitatively different responses with respect to random dilution, random bond and spin glass universality classes. In particular, while the latter three decrease the level of dynamic disorder (Gaussian noise) warranting the optimal response, the former evokes exactly the opposite effect, hence increasing the optimal noise level that is needed to resonantly fine-tune the system's response in accordance with the weak deterministic electric field. These observations are shown to be independent of the system size and range of interactions, thus implying their general validity and potentially wide applicability also within other similar settings. We argue that soft matter systems might be particularly adequate as a base for different SR-based sensitive detectors and thus potent candidates for additional theoretical as well as experimental research in the presently outlined direction.
Keywords: dynamic systems, stochastic processes, stochastic resonance, nonlinear dynamical systems, soft-matter systems, static disorder, dynamic disorder
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1271; Downloads: 63
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Transition from Gaussian to Levy distributions of stochastic payoff variations in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game
Matjaž Perc, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: We study the impact of stochastic payoff variations with different distributions on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We find that Gaussian-distributed payoff variations are most successful in promoting cooperation irrespective of the temptation to defect. In particular, the facilitative effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation decreases steadily as the frequency of rare events increases. Findings are explained via an analysis of local payoff ranking violations. The relevance of results for economics and sociology is discussed.
Keywords: stochastic systems, spatial resonance, stochastic payoff variations, nonlinear systems, noise, spatial dynamics, mathematical models, prisoner's dilemma
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1362; Downloads: 70
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Proximity to periodic windows in bifurcation diagrams as a gateway to coherence resonance in chaotic systems
Marko Gosak, Matjaž Perc, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: We show that chaotic states situated in the proximity of periodic windows in bifurcation diagrams are eligible for the observation of coherence resonance. In particular, additive Gaussian noise of appropriate intensity can enhance the temporal order in such chaotic states in a resonant manner. Results obtained for the logistic map and the Lorenz equations suggest that the presented mechanism of coherence resonance is valid beyond particularities of individual systems. We attribute the findings to the increasing attraction of imminent periodic orbits and the ability of noise to anticipate their existence and use a modified wavelet analysis to support our arguments.
Keywords: chaotic systems, spatial resonance, coherence resonance, nonlinear systems, noise, spatial dynamics, mathematical models, bifurcation diagrame
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1576; Downloads: 89
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Thoughts out of noise
Matjaž Perc, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: We study the effects of additive Gaussian noise on the behaviour of a simple spatially extended system, which is locally modelled by a nonlinear two-dimensional iterated map describing neuronal dynamics. In particular, we focus on the ability of noise to induce spatially ordered patterns, i. e. the so-called noise-induced pattern formation. For intermediate noise intensities, the spatially extended system exhibits ordered circular waves, thereby clearly manifesting the constructive role of random perturbations. The emergence of observed noise-induced patterns is explained with simple arguments that are obtained by analysing the typical spatial scale of patterns evoked by various diffusion coefficients. Since discrete-time systems are straightforward to implement and require modest computational capabilities, the present study describes one of the most fascinating and visually compelling examples of noise-induced self-organization in nonlinear systems in an accessible way for graduate or even advanced undergraduate students attending a nonlinear dynamics course.
Keywords: dynamic systems, chaotic systems, nonlinear dynamics, nonlinear systems, noise, nonlinear analyses
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 982; Downloads: 25
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Introducing nonlinear time series analysis in undergraduate courses
Matjaž Perc, 2006, professional article

Abstract: This article is written for undergraduate students and teachers who would like to get familiar with basic nonlinear time series analysis methods. We present a step-by-step study of a simple example and provide user-friendly programs that allow an easy reproduction of presented results. In particular, we study an artificial time series generated by the Lorenz system. The mutual information and false nearest neighbour method are explained in detail, and used to obtain the best possible attractor reconstruction. Subsequently, the times series is tested for stationarity and determinism, which are both important properties that assure correct interpretation of invariant quantities that can be extracted from the data set. Finally, as the most prominent invariant quantity that allows distinguishing between regular and chaotic behaviour, we calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent. By following the above steps, we are able to convincingly determine that the Lorenz system is chaotic directly from the generated time series, without the need to use the differential equations. Throughout the paper, emphasis on clear-cut guidance and a hands-on approach is given in order to make the reproduction of presented results possible also for undergraduates, and thus encourage them to get familiar with the presented theory.
Keywords: nonlinear systems, nonlinear time series analyses, physics education
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 895; Downloads: 22
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Visualizing the attraction of strange attractors
Matjaž Perc, 2005, professional article

Abstract: We describe a simple new method that provides instructive insights into the dynamics of chaotic time-continuous systems that yield strange attractors as solutions in the phase space. In particular, we show that the norm of the vector field component that is orthogonal to the trajectory is an excellent quantity for visualizing the attraction of strange attractors, thus promoting the understanding of their formation and overall structure. Furthermore, based on the existence of zero orthogonal field strengths in planes that form low-dimensional strange attractors, we also provide an innovative explanation for the origin of chaotic behaviour. For instructive purposes, we first apply the method to a simple limit cycle attractor, and then analyse two paradigmatic mathematical models for classical time-continuous chaos. To facilitate the use of our method in graduate as well as undergraduate courses, we also provide user-friendly programs in which the presented theory is implemented.
Keywords: dynamic systems, chaotic systems, nonlinear dynamics, attractors, strange attractors
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1574; Downloads: 52
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