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Nanotechnology in food safety and quality assessment
Maša Primec, 2016, review article

Abstract: A rapid microbial detection in different biological and environmental material is a key of preventing several foodborne diseases. By implementing nanotechnology into food safety sector, a great step towards successful, reliable and sensible detection methods of foodborne pathogens has been achieved. Therefore, the aim of this review was to illustrate some of the principal functions of nanotechnology-based techniques, used for microbial detection in the last few years. Regarding consumer’s health, the review also discusses the question of safety, concerning human exposure to nanomaterials (NMs). Due to their different composition-unique properties, such as greater penetrability, reactivity and high surface to volume ratio, NMs have been coupled to several biomolecules and integrated in special system devices, resulting in improvement of sensitivity in transmitting biological signal informations in a shorter time. Among all the NMs, gold, magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used, also in microbial diagnosis. Despite the success of linking nanotechnology to detection of foodborne pathogens, the exposure to various NMs could also be a matter of potential risk to human health, although conclusions still need to be definitely proven.
Keywords: nanotechnology, food safety, nanoparticles, diagnosis, foodborne pathogens
Published: 14.11.2017; Views: 707; Downloads: 92
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Synthesis of nickel and cobalt sulfide nanoparticles using a low cost sonochemical method
Matjaž Kristl, Brina Dojer, Sašo Gyergyek, Janja Kristl, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Nickel and cobalt sulfides are promising materials in different cutting-edge research areas like solar cells, supercapacitors, catalysts, and electrode materials. Nickel and cobalt sulfides with various stoichiometries have been synthesized sonochemically from $Ni(CH_3COO)_2$ ∙ $4H_2O$, $Co(CH_3COO)_2$ ∙ $2H_2O$ and different sulfur precursors using a direct immersion ultrasonic probe. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including EDX analysis, IR and UV–Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Following products have been obtained: $NiS$, $Ni_3S_4$, $CoS_{1.097}$ and $Co_9S_8$, with average crystallite sizes in the range 7−30 nm. Effects of different reaction conditions on the size, morphology and optical band-gap energy were evaluated. Optical band-gap energies in the range 3.3 eV−3.8 eV were observed for the obtained nanoparticles.
Keywords: material science, inorganic chemistry, nanotechnology
Published: 14.07.2017; Views: 865; Downloads: 308
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Skin cancer and its treatment
Kristjan Orthaber, Matevž Pristovnik, Kristijan Skok, Barbara Perić, Uroš Maver, 2017, review article

Abstract: The life expectancy in the Western world is increasing for a long time, which is the courtesy of a higher life standard, a more thorough hygiene, and, of course, the progress of modern medicine. Nevertheless, one of the illnesses that still proves to be a great challenge regardless of the recent advancements in medicine is cancer. Skin cancer is, according to theWorld Health Organization, the most common malignancy for the white population.The beginning of the paper offers a brief overview of the latest available information concerning epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment options for skin cancer, whereas the rest of the article deals with modern approaches to skin cancer treatment, highlighting recent development of nanotechnology based treatment approaches. Among these, we focus especially on the newest nanotechnological approaches combined with chemotherapy, a field which specialises in target specificity, drug release control, and real time monitoring with the goal being to diminish unwanted side effects and their severity, achieving a cheaper treatment and a generally more efficient chemotherapy. The field of nanotechnology is a rapidly developing one, judging by already approved clinical studies or by new theranostic agents that combine both the therapeutic and diagnostic modalities.
Keywords: skin cancer, treatment, nanotechnology, nanotechnological methods
Published: 14.06.2017; Views: 571; Downloads: 80
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Electrospinning
Manja Kurečič, Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, 2013, review article

Abstract: Electrospinning is a method based on the use of electrostatic forces for producing continuous fibres with the diameter from between ten nanometres to some micrometres. Such fine fibres cannot be produced with conventional methods for the production of nonwovens. The nanofibres formed with electrospinning have an exceptionally large active surface area per mass unit (fibre surface at diameter of 100 nm equals 40 $m^2$/g) and the spinning process itself enables a planned formation of the web structure (e.g. planned size of pores in the web by adjusting the nanofibre diameter and fibre thickness). Nanofibres can be electrospun from synthetic or natural polymers and their blends, from polymers with various nanoparticles (metal, ceramic etc), active substances etc. We can fabricate individual fibres, as well as webs with a random or planned fibre arrangement. Fibres with a complex structure, e.g. core shell or hollow fibres, can be produced with a special electrospinning method. Regarding the advantages demonstrated by the nanofibres fabricated with electrospinning, this procedure has become an important part of research in seve ral fields of use of technical textiles, e.g. shielding materials, air and oil filters in the car industry, agrotextiles and most of all medical textiles. The method can also be used in the production of batteries and photovoltaic cells. Apart from the apparatus designed for the research purpose in laboratories, pilot devices and the devices designed for the use in the industry can be found on the market. The paper comprises the introduction of the preparation procedure of nanofibres on an electrospinning apparatus, the morphological characteristics of fibres and the characteristics of electrospun webs in dependence of the conditions when forming fibres.
Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofibres, electrospinning, 3D-structure
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 1130; Downloads: 60
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