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Kraft lignin/tannin as a potential accelerator of antioxidant and antibacterial properties in an active thermoplastic polyester-based multifunctional material
Klementina Pušnik Črešnar, Alexandra Zamboulis, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Alexandra Aulova, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: This research focuses on key priorities in the field of sustainable plastic composites that will lead to a reduction in CO2 pollution and support the EU’s goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050. The main challenge is to develop high-performance polyphenol-reinforced thermoplastic composites, where the use of natural fillers replaces the usual chemical additives with non-toxic ones, not only to improve the final performance but also to increase the desired multifunctionalities (structural, antioxidant, and antibacterial). Therefore, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composites based on Kraft lignin (KL) and tannin (TANN) were investigated. Two series of PLA composites, PLA-KL and PLA-TANN, which contained natural fillers (0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5% (w/w)) were prepared by hot melt extrusion. The effects of KL and TANN on the PLA matrices were investigated, especially the surface physicochemical properties, mechanical properties, and antioxidant/antimicrobial activity. The surface physicochemical properties were evaluated by measuring the contact angle (CA), roughness, zeta potential, and nanoindentation. The results of the water contact angle showed that neither KL nor TANN caused a significant change in the wettability, but only a slight increase in the hydrophilicity of the PLA composites. The filler loading, the size of the particles with their available functional groups on the surfaces of the PLA composites, and the interaction between the filler and the PLA polymer depend on the roughness and zeta potential behavior of the PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites and ultimately improve the surface mechanical properties. The antioxidant properties of the PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites were determined using the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) test. The results show an efficient antioxidant behavior of all PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites, which increases with the filler content. Finally, the KL- and PLA-based TANN have shown resistance to the Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli, but without a correlation trend between polyphenol filler content and structure.
Keywords: poly (lactic acid), Kraft lignin, tannin, multifunctionality of PLA composites, surface mechanical properties, antioxidant/antibacterial activity
Published in DKUM: 18.09.2023; Views: 79; Downloads: 3
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Fabrication and mechanical testing of the uniaxial graded auxetic damper
Hasan Al-Rifaie, Nejc Novak, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, Wojciech Sumelka, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Auxetic structures can be used as protective sacrificial solutions for impact protection with lightweight and excellent energy-dissipation characteristics. A recently published and patented shock-absorbing system, namely, Uniaxial Graded Auxetic Damper (UGAD), proved its efficiency through comprehensive analytical and computational analyses. However, the authors highlighted the necessity for experimental testing of this new damper. Hence, this paper aimed to fabricate the UGAD using a cost-effective method and determine its load–deformation properties and energy-absorption potential experimentally and computationally. The geometry of the UGAD, fabrication technique, experimental setup, and computational model are presented. A series of dog-bone samples were tested to determine the exact properties of aluminium alloy (AW-5754, T-111). A simplified (elastic, plastic with strain hardening) material model was proposed and validated for use in future computational simulations. Results showed that deformation pattern, progressive collapse, and force–displacement relationships of the manufactured UGAD are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions, thus validating the proposed computational and material models.
Keywords: uniaxial graded auxetic damper, energy absorber, mechanical properties, finite element method, explicit solver
Published in DKUM: 28.07.2023; Views: 133; Downloads: 14
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Comparative study of the microstructure and properties of cast-fabricated and 3D-printed laser-sintered Co–Cr alloys for removable partial denture frameworks
Dejan Stamenković, Miljana Popović, Rebeka Rudolf, Milorad Zrilić, Karlo Raić, Kosovka Obradović-Đuričić, Dragoslav Stamenković, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Since additive technologies in dentistry are gradually replacing metal casting technology, it is necessary to evaluate new dental constructions intended for the development of removable partial denture frameworks. The aim of this research was to evaluate the microstructure and mechanical properties of 3D-printed, laser-melted and -sintered Co–Cr alloys, and perform a comparative study with Co–Cr castings for the same dental purposes. The experiments were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of samples produced by conventional casting of the Co–Cr alloy. The second group consisted of 3D-printed, laser-melted and -sintered specimens produced from a Co–Cr alloy powder divided into three subgroups, depending on the technological parameters chosen for manufacturing (angle, location and heat treatment). Examination of the microstructure was carried out by classical metallographic sample preparation, using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. A structural phase analysis was also performed by XRD. The mechanical properties were determined using a standard tensile test. The microstructure observation showed a dendritic character in the case of castings, while in the case of 3D-printed, laser-melted and -sintered Co–Cr alloys, the microstructure was typical for additive technologies. The XRD phase analysis confirmed the presence of Co–Cr phases (ε and γ). The results of the tensile test showed remarkably higher yield and tensile strength values and slightly lower elongation of the 3D-printed, laser-melted and -sintered samples than those produced by conventional casting.
Keywords: Co–Cr dental alloys, 3D printing, laser melting and sintering, casting, microstructure, mechanical properties, characterization
Published in DKUM: 21.04.2023; Views: 183; Downloads: 15
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Influence of Heat Treatments on Microstructure of Electron Beam Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy : magistrsko delo
Damir Skuhala, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: Additive manufacturing of metallic parts is increasing in popularity and starting to emerge as a new competitive manufacturing process. Printed structures from Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, produced by electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM), possess columnar prior β grains and layer bands, alongside an ultrafine lamellar microstructure, which is prone to low ductility and thus requiring thermal post-processing. Several heat treatments were performed in α + β and β field, in one or multiple stages. The results showed that bi-lamellar microstructure can be obtained, and that selection of annealing temperature and cooling rate determines the morphology, thickness, and distribution of both primary and secondary α features. Mechanical properties were evaluated on three selected heat treatments. Annealing of the As-built condition was performed at 710°C (HT1) and 870°C (HT2), resulting in lamellar microstructure with basketweave morphology. In two-stage heat treatment (HT3), the temperature in the first stage has exceeded β transus, while in the second, annealing was performed again at 870°C. The microstructure was characterized as a mixture of lamellar and bi-lamellar with large α colonies inside the rearranged prior β grains. Air cooling was performed in all HT from the final annealing stage. Strength and hardness have decreased with increasingly coarser microstructural features, while fracture toughness was improved, except in HT1, where the decrease in the fracture toughness was mainly attributed to reduced intrinsic toughening. As-built and HT1 conditions were effected by microstructural texture, causing inconsistent fracture morphology, reduced crack roughness and scattering in results. The influence of texture was decreased by coarser microstructure in HT2, while crack tortuosity was increased. Very unpredictable fracture behaviour was observed in HT3 due to large α colonies, as their orientation determines the areas of ductile or cleavage crack propagation.
Keywords: Titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V, additive manufacturing, EBAM, heat treatments, microstructural optimization, mechanical properties, fracture toughness
Published in DKUM: 11.05.2020; Views: 1167; Downloads: 183
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1st International FibreNet Science for the Public Day : Book of Abstracts
2019, proceedings

Abstract: First international conference in the scope of FibreNet project funded by European Commission. The conference brings the FibreNet together international representatives from industry and academia to discuss opportunities and strengths related to bio-based fibre products. In three consecutive sessions, fifteen international PhD students will present their research results, guide you along the value-chain of fibre-based products and give you the opportunity to discuss the future of bio-based materials.
Keywords: biobased materials, mechanical properties, paper, packaging, dissemination of research result
Published in DKUM: 08.01.2020; Views: 1008; Downloads: 45
URL Link to file

Book of abstracts
2018, other monographs and other completed works

Keywords: mechanical engineering, metalurgy, material properties
Published in DKUM: 22.05.2018; Views: 741; Downloads: 0

An evaluation of marine sediments in terms of their usability in the brick industry : case study Port of Koper
Patrik Baksa, Franka Cepak, Rebeka Kovačič Lukman, Vilma Ducman, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: A dredging process is essential for the development of harbours and ports, allowing the functional daily operation of the port. The management of dredged material represents a worldwide challenge, especially considering unwanted deposition of material. Because of their chemical, petrographic, mineralogical and homogeneity composition, marine sediments could represent an appropriate raw material for the brick industry, particularly for the production of clay blocks, roofing and ceramic tiles. In this study dredged material from Port of Koper was tested for such use, thus various analyses were carried out in order to determine if the dredged material is environmentally friendly and suitable for use in the brick industry. These included: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis, particle size analysis, chloride content analysis and tests of firing in a gradient furnace. Furthermore, tests of mechanical properties, as well as tests of the frost-resistance of the samples were carried out. On the basis of the primary analyses and samples prepared in a laboratory, it was confirmed that marine sediments from the Port of Koper, without any additives are only conditionally suitable as a source material for producing brick products, because without additives they exhibit too much shrinkage on drying and firing, as well as high water absorption, this can be improved by the incorporation of suitable additives, for example, virgin clay or other suitable waste material. The approach described herewith can also be followed to assess sediments from other ports and rivers regarding its potential use in clay brick sector.
Keywords: dredge marine sediment, recycling, clay bricks, mechanical properties, chemical analysis
Published in DKUM: 21.12.2017; Views: 2283; Downloads: 173
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Tailoring the mechanical and thermal properties of dicyclopentadiene polyHIPEs with the use of a comonomer
E. H. Mert, Christian Slugovc, Peter Krajnc, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The effect of adding a comonomer to dicyclopentadiene in high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) on the properties of ring-opening metathesis polymerisation (ROMP) derived polyHIPEs has been investigated. With this aim, dicylopentadiene was copolymerised with norbornene in surfactant stabilized high internal phase emulsions. Morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting materials were investigated with regard to the monomer ratio. The interconnected pore structure was observed for the resulting poly(dicylopentadiene-co-norbornene) polyHIPEs. Furthermore, the new polyHIPE copolymers were found to have an improved thermal stability compared to the poly(dicylopentadiene) homopolymer.
Keywords: mechanical properties, emulsion templating, polyHIPE, dicyclopentadiene, norbornene
Published in DKUM: 07.08.2017; Views: 1205; Downloads: 365
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Intelligent system for prediction of mechanical properties of material based on metallographic images
Matej Paulič, David Močnik, Mirko Ficko, Jože Balič, Tomaž Irgolič, Simon Klančnik, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: This article presents developed intelligent system for prediction of mechanical properties of material based on metallographic images. The system is composed of two modules. The first module of the system is an algorithm for features extraction from metallographic images. The first algorithm reads metallographic image, which was obtained by microscope, followed by image features extraction with developed algorithm and in the end algorithm calculates proportions of the material microstructure. In this research we need to determine proportions of graphite, ferrite and ausferrite from metallographic images as accurately as possible. The second module of the developed system is a system for prediction of mechanical properties of material. Prediction of mechanical properties of material was performed by feed-forward artificial neural network. As inputs into artificial neural network calculated proportions of graphite, ferrite and ausferrite were used, as targets for training mechanical properties of material were used. Training of artificial neural network was performed on quite small database, but with parameters changing we succeeded. Artificial neural network learned to such extent that the error was acceptable. With the oriented neural network we successfully predicted mechanical properties for excluded sample.
Keywords: artificial neural network, factor of phase coherence between the surfaces, fracture toughness, image processing, mechanical properties, metallographic image, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2017; Views: 1203; Downloads: 405
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