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High strain rate hardening of metallic cellular metamaterials
Nejc Novak, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Strain rate hardening caused by the changed deformation mode is a fascinating phenomenon in cellular metamaterials where the material’s stiffness and energy absorption capabilities increase as the strain rate increases. This unique behaviour is attributed to a combination of micro-inertia effects, base material’s strain rate hardening and inertia effects. At high strain rates, the metamaterial’s inertia influences its deformation response, which changes to shock mode. This work briefly presents the geometry and fabrication of different metallic metamaterials. Then, it evaluates their mechanical response at different strain rates, ranging from quasi-static to intermediate dynamic and shock, determined by experimental and computational investigation. The three deformation modes can be separated into two critical loading velocities, unique for each metamaterial, which are also presented and compared in this work for various metamaterials. The investigations show that the deformation mode change in metallic metamaterials depends on their porosity. The critical velocities separating the deformation modes decrease with increasing porosity, i.e., decreased density of the metamaterial results in reduced critical loading velocities. The shock deformation mode in cellular metamaterials is thus attainable at much lower loading velocities than in homogeneous (nonporous) materials.
Keywords: metamaterials, cellular structures, high strain rate, experimental testing, computational modelling, compression loading, mechanical properties
Published in DKUM: 22.05.2024; Views: 158; Downloads: 6
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Mechanical behaviour of photopolymer cell-size graded triply periodic minimal surface structures at different deformation rates
Yunus Emre Yilmaz, Nejc Novak, Oraib Al-Ketan, Hacer Irem Erten, Ulas Yaman, Anja Mauko, Matej Borovinšek, Miran Ulbin, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: This study investigates how varying cell size affects the mechanical behaviour of photopolymer Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces (TPMS) under different deformation rates. Diamond, Gyroid, and Primitive TPMS structures with spatially graded cell sizes were tested. Quasi-static experiments measured boundary forces, representing material behaviour, inertia, and deformation mechanisms. Separate studies explored the base material’s behaviour and its response to strain rate, revealing a strength increase with rising strain rate. Ten compression tests identified a critical strain rate of 0.7 s−1 for “Grey Pro” material, indicating a shift in failure susceptibility. X-ray tomography, camera recording, and image correlation techniques observed cell connectivity and non-uniform deformation in TPMS structures. Regions exceeding the critical rate fractured earlier. In Primitive structures, stiffness differences caused collapse after densification of smaller cells at lower rates. The study found increasing collapse initiation stress, plateau stress, densification strain, and specific energy absorption with higher deformation rates below the critical rate for all TPMS structures. However, cell-size graded Primitive structures showed a significant reduction in plateau and specific energy absorption at a 500 mm/min rate.
Keywords: cellular materials, triply periodical minimal surface, photopolymer, mechanical properties, strain rate, experimental compressive testing, computer simulations
Published in DKUM: 22.05.2024; Views: 168; Downloads: 7
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Advance analysis of the obtained recycled materials from used disposable surgical masks
Alen Erjavec, Julija Volmajer Valh, Silvo Hribernik, Tjaša Kraševac Glaser, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Tomaž Vuherer, Branko Neral, Mihael Brunčko, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: The production of personal protective equipment (PPE) has increased dramatically in recent years, not only because of the pandemic, but also because of stricter legislation in the field of Employee Protection. The increasing use of PPE, including disposable surgical masks (DSMs), is putting additional pressure on waste collectors. For this reason, it is necessary to find high-quality solutions for this type of waste. Mechanical recycling is still the most common type of recycling, but the recyclates are often classified as low-grade materials. For this reason, a detailed analysis of the recyclates is necessary. These data will help us to improve the properties and find the right end application that will increase the value of the materials. This work represents an extended analysis of the recyclates obtained from DSMs, manufactured from different polymers. Using surface and morphology tests, we have gained insights into the distribution of different polymers in polymer blends and their effects on mechanical and surface properties. It was found that the addition of ear loop material to the PP melt makes the material tougher. In the polymer blends obtained, PP and PA 6 form the surface (affects surface properties), while PU and PET are distributed mainly inside the injection-molded samples.
Keywords: mechanical recycling, disposable surgical mask, morphology, surface properties, mechanical properties, nonwoven materials, PPE
Published in DKUM: 09.04.2024; Views: 176; Downloads: 9
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Introducing auxetic behavior to syntactic foams
Nejc Novak, Miha Kolar, Nima Movahedi, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, Thomas Fiedler, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative multi-material approach for introducing auxetic behaviour to syntactic foams (SFs). By carefully designing the size, shape, and orientation of the SFs, auxetic deformation behaviour was induced. Re-entrant hexagon-shaped SF elements were fabricated using expanded perlite (EP) particles and a plaster of Paris slurry first. Then, an auxetic pattern of these SF elements was arranged within a stainless-steel casting box. The empty spaces between the SF elements were filled with molten aluminium alloy (A356) using the counter-gravity infiltration casting technique. The cast auxetic composite had a bulk density of 1.52 g/cm3. The cast composite was then compressed under quasi-static loading to characterise its deformation behaviour and to determine the mechanical properties, especially the Poisson’s ratio. The cast composite deformation was auxetic with a Poisson’s ratio of −1.04. Finite Element (FE) simulations were conducted to understand the deformation mechanism better and provide means for further optimisation of the geometry.
Keywords: auxetic cellular structure, syntactic foams, experimental tests, mechanical properties, Poisson’s ratio
Published in DKUM: 28.03.2024; Views: 175; Downloads: 16
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Novel ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) enhanced by superhydrophobic and self-luminescent features
Ahmad Rizwan Mumtaz, Natalija Bede Odorčić, Núria Garro, Samo Lubej, Andrej Ivanič, Antonio Comite, Marcello Pagliero, Gregor Kravanja, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: This study explores the potential of using basalt reinforced UHPC by incorporating simultaneously self-cleaning and self-luminescent features, paving the way for sustainable advancements in civil engineering. New green formulations of UHPC were developed by integrating supplementary cementitious materials and optimizing water to the binder ratio, followed by using basalt fibers to enhance strength and ductility. The fabricated samples with high particle-packing density exhibit sufficient workability and compressive strength up to 136 MPa, and, when incorporating basalt fibers, a notable reduction in brittleness. The inner microstructure of basalt fibers was observed to be smooth, homogeneously distributed, and well adhered to the UHPC matrix. To ensure the desired long-lasting visual appearance of decorative UHPC and reduce future maintenance costs, a time-effective strategy for creating a light-emitting biomimetic surface design was introduced. The samples exhibit high surface roughness, characterized by micro to nano-scale voids, displaying superhydrophobicity with contact angles reaching up to 155.45°. This is accompanied by roll-off angles decreasing to 7.1°, highlighting their self-cleaning features. The self-luminescence feature showcased intense initial light emission, offering a potential energy-efficient nighttime lighting solutio
Keywords: UHPC, basalt fibers, mechanical properties, morphology, superhydrophobic, self-luminescence
Published in DKUM: 29.01.2024; Views: 298; Downloads: 6
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Experimental and numerical analysis of fracture mechanics behavior of heterogeneous zones in S690QL1 grade high strength steel (HSS) welded joint
Damir Tomerlin, Dražan Kozak, Luka Ferlič, Nenad Gubeljak, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The heterogeneity of welded joints’ microstructure affects their mechanical properties, which can vary significantly in relation to specific weld zones. Given the dimensional limitations of the available test volumes of such material zones, the determination of mechanical properties presents a certain challenge. The paper investigates X welded joint of S690QL1 grade high strength steel (HSS), welded with slightly overmatching filler metal. The experimental work is focused on tensile testing to obtain stress-strain properties, as well as fracture mechanics testing. Considering the aforementioned limitations of the material test volume, tensile testing is carried out with mini tensile specimens (MTS), determining stress-strain curves for each characteristic weld zone. Fracture mechanical testing is carried out to determine the fracture toughness using the characteristic parameters. The experimental investigation is carried out using the single edge notch bend (SENB) specimens located in several characteristic welded joint zones: base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ), and weld metal (WM). Fractographic analysis provides deeper insight into crack behavior in relation to specific weld zones. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to describe the fracture behavior of SENB specimens. Damage initiation and evolution is simulated using the ductile damage material behavior. This paper demonstrates the possibility of experimental and numerical determination of fracture mechanics behavior of characteristic heterogeneous welded joint zones and their influence on crack path growth.
Keywords: heterogeneous welded joint, high strength steel, mechanical testing, damage, fracture, mechanical properties, finite element analysis
Published in DKUM: 30.11.2023; Views: 368; Downloads: 19
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