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Antlion larvae localize long distant preys by a mechanism based on time diference
Vanessa Martinez, David Sillam-Dussès, Dušan Devetak, Vincent Lorent, Jan Podlesnik, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Pit building antlions Euroleon nostras have been submitted to artifcial cues in order to delineate their faculty to localize a prey. Series of propagating pulses in sand have been created from an extended source made of 10 piezoelectric transducers equally spaced on a line and located at a large distance from the pit. The envelope of each pulse encompasses six oscillations at a carrier frequency of 1250 Hz and up to eight oscillations at 1666 Hz. In one set of experiments, the frst wave front is followed by similar wave fronts and the antlions respond to the cue by throwing sand in the opposite direction of the wave front propagation direction. In another set of experiments, the frst wave front is randomly spatially structured while the propagation of the wave fronts inside the envelope of the pulse are not. In that case, the antlions respond less to the cue by throwing sand, and when they do, their sand throwing is more randomly distributed in direction. The fnding shows that the localization of vibration signal by antlions are based on the equivalent for hearing animals of interaural time diference in which the onset has more signifcance than the interaural phase diference.
Keywords: Euroleon nostras, localization, phase time diference, onset time diference, sand-borne vibrations
Published in DKUM: 18.04.2024; Views: 87; Downloads: 2
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Phenomenology of quantum eigenstates in mixed-type systems: Lemon billiards with complex phase space structure
Črt Lozej, Dragan Lukman, Marko Robnik, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The boundary of the lemon billiards is defined by the intersection of two circles of equal unit radius with the distance 2B between their centers, as introduced by Heller and Tomsovic [E. J. Heller and S. Tomsovic, Phys. Today 46, 38 (1993)]. This paper is a continuation of our recent papers on a classical and quantum ergodic lemon billiard (B = 0.5) with strong stickiness effects [C. Lozej ˇ et al., Phys. Rev. E 103, 012204 (2021)], as well as on the three billiards with a simple mixed-type phase space and no stickiness [C. Lozej ˇ et al., Nonlin. Phenom. Complex Syst. 24, 1 (2021)]. Here we study two classical and quantum lemon billiards, for the cases B = 0.1953, 0.083, which are mixed-type billiards with a complex structure of phase space, without significant stickiness regions. A preliminary study of their spectra was published recently [ C. Lozej, D. Lukman, and M. ˇ Robnik, Physics 3, 888 (2021)]. We calculate a very large number (106) of consecutive eigenstates and their Poincaré-Husimi (PH) functions, and analyze their localization properties by studying the entropy localization measure and the normalized inverse participation ratio. We introduce an overlap index, which measures the degree of the overlap of PH functions with classically regular and chaotic regions. We observe the existence of regular states associated with invariant tori and chaotic states associated with the classically chaotic regions, and also the mixed-type states. We show that in accordance with the Berry-Robnik picture and the principle of uniform semiclassical condensation of PH functions, the relative fraction of mixed-type states decreases as a power law with increasing energy, thus, in the strict semiclassical limit, leaving only purely regular and chaotic states. Our approach offers a general phenomenological overview of the structural and localization properties of PH functions in quantum mixed-type Hamiltonian systems.
Keywords: quantum physics, energy, localization, quantum chaos, billiards, chaotic systems
Published in DKUM: 12.10.2023; Views: 232; Downloads: 12
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Transport and Localization in Classical and Quantum Billiards
Črt Lozej, 2020, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: In this thesis the classical and quantum dynamics in billiard systems are considered. Extensive numerical studies of the classical transport properties in several examples of billiard families including the ergodic Bunimovich stadium and cut-circle billiards and the mixed-type Robnik and lemon billiards are performed. The analysis of the transport is based on the random model of diffusion which assumes that due the strongly chaotic dynamics the motion of the orbit on the discretized phase space is temporally uncorrelated. The cause of the deviations from the random model dynamics is traced to dynamical trapping due to stickiness. A novel approach to locally quantifying stickiness based on the statistics of the recurrence times is presented and applied to distinguish between exponential decays of recurrence times and other types of decays. This enables the identification of sticky areas in the chaotic components. Detailed maps of their structure for a wide range of parameter values, mapping the evolution of the mixed-phase spaces and revealing some particularly interesting special examples are presented. The recurrence time distributions in sticky areas are found to be well described by a mixture of exponential decays. The transport of particle ensembles in the momentum space of classical billiards is described by using an inhomogeneous diffusion model and the classical transport times are determined. The classical transport times are vital for the analysis of the localization of chaotic eigenstates in quantum billiards. The control parameter that describes the the degree of localization of the chaotic quantum eigenstates is the ratio between the Heisenberg time (Planck's constant divided by the mean level spacing) and the classical transport time. Extensive numerical calculations of the high-lying spectra and eigenstates of the stadium, Robnik and lemon quantum billiards are performed. The spectral statistics are analysed in terms of the standard methods of quantum chaos. The level repulsion exponent of localized eigenstates is found to be a rational function of the control parameter. The degree of localization is determined with respect to localization measures based on the Poincaré-Husimi representation of the eigenstates. The mean localization measure is found to be a rational function of the control parameter and linearly related to the level repulsion exponent. The distributions of the localization measures are analysed and found to be of a universal shape well described by a two parameter empirical distribution in billiards with no apparent stickiness. The nonuniversal system specific features of localization measure distributions are related to the presence of sticky areas in the phase spaces of classical billiards with specific examples shown.
Keywords: Transport, localization, chaos, quantum chaos, Hamiltonian systems, level spacing distribution, mixed phase space, billiard, quantum billiard, Husimi functions, stickiness, cantorus, chaotic eigenstates, level repulsion.
Published in DKUM: 13.01.2021; Views: 1468; Downloads: 153
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Design of an Embedded Position Sensor with Sub-mm Accuracy : magistrsko delo
Matej Nogić, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: This master’s thesis presents the development of a machine-vision based localization unit developed at Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering in Renningen, Germany. The localization unit was developed primarily for position detection purposes with three degrees of freedom in highly versatile manufacturing systems but has an immense potential to be used anywhere where a precise, low-cost localization method on a two-dimensional surface is required. The complete product development cycle was carried out, from the components selection, schematic and optical system design, to the development of machine vision algorithms, four-layer Printed Circuit Board design and evaluation using an industrial robot. Thanks to the use of a patented two-dimensional code pattern, the localization unit can cover a surface area of 49 km2. The size and speed optimized, self-developed machine-vision algorithms running on a Cortex-M7 microcontroller allow achieving an accuracy of 100 µm and 60 Hz refresh rate.
Keywords: localization, machine-vision, code pattern, image sensor, embedded system
Published in DKUM: 14.01.2020; Views: 1220; Downloads: 48
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