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1.
Citizenship by investment programs from the perspective of international and EU Law
Petra Weingerl, Matjaž Tratnik, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: A growing number of States have been offering so-called citizenship by investment programs (CBI) or related residence by investment programs (RBI), where they offer residence and/or their nationality to foreigners willing to invest a considerable sum in their economies and/or to donate to their budget or other public funds. We focus on the CBI. Among States that offer specific CBI programs are mainly Caribbean states, but also three EU Member States, namely Bulgaria, Cyprus and Malta. The choice of an investment or donation as one of the grounds for the acquisition of the nationality of a (Member) State is in principle a legitimate choice under both international and EU law. In Section 2, we will first offer some thoughts on privileged naturalizations in State interest in general, and specifically about investment migration, before we embark on the discussion of the CBI schemes that are offered in Bulgaria, Cyprus and Malta. Section 3 explores the principle of national autonomy and its limitations both in international and EU law, with the focus on the existing CBI programs in the EU and their compatibility with international and EU law. Moreover, we will analyse the approach of the EU institutions towards such schemes.
Keywords: citizenship by investment, privileged naturalization, national autonomy, due diligence, EU citizenship
Published in DKUM: 15.01.2021; Views: 272; Downloads: 18
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2.
Implications of unilateral arbitration clauses : master's thesis
Stefan Danojević, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: Unilateral arbitration clauses are clauses that provide one party with an option to choose between either arbitral or court proceedings. The other party does not have such choice, but its dispute resolution mechanism is predetermined from the outset. For that exact reason, the question is raised whether such clauses are problematic. This question stems from the proposition that there is inherent inequality between the parties arising out of the nature of such agreement. Especially problematic aspect of inequality is highlighted when the disadvantaged party is not granted any other contractional benefit in return. Interpretation regarding as to what is breaching the principle of equal treatment and at the same time possibly public policy of a relevant country differs throughout different jurisdictions. Highest regard must be given to interpretations of countries of the seat of arbitration or the countries where the final award is to be recognised and enforced. This is due to the fact that if the clause is considered contrary to public policy of these countries there is risk of award being set aside or of the refusal of recognition and enforcement of the award. However, even in the event that consequences are not as grave the risk remains that such arbitration agreement will not be respected its entirety. Thus, the utilisation of unilateral arbitration clauses is clouded by uncertainty. The uncertainty exists specifically in regard to the disadvantaged party as until the procedure is initiated, that party will not be able to anticipate what type of proceeding it will be subjected to. Further, there is uncertainty from the perspective of both parties as the concerns regarding validity and enforcement are ever present. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for parties to draft unilateral arbitration agreements with absolute precision and with due regard to the possible obstacles.
Keywords: international commercial arbitration, international investment arbitration, arbitration clause, unilateral arbitration clause, party equality, enforceability
Published in DKUM: 11.11.2020; Views: 873; Downloads: 106
.pdf Full text (536,03 KB)

3.
Thinking in options – finding and evaluating alternatives
Edeltraud Günther, Daria Meyr, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: After this general observation of decision processes we want to have a look at two decision making situations, that necessitate these processes, more detailed: Investment decisions are on the agenda for small and medium-sized companies, while acquisition decisions are more relevant in larger companies.
Keywords: decision-making, investment decisions, acquisition decisions, monetary assessment, effects, economic-ecological net effect
Published in DKUM: 11.05.2018; Views: 703; Downloads: 45
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4.
Next generation logistics : technologies and applications
Borut Jereb, 2017, scientific monograph

Abstract: The scientific monograph “Next Generation Logistics: Technologies and Applications” focuses on smart system modelling approaches to some logistics problems, sustainability applications on warehousing technologies as well as investment and management of logistics systems. The monograph includes nine chapters that approach to logistical problems from practical requirements. The reader will find both mathematical modelling approaches to some warehousing, supply chain problems as well as management related issues in the related problems. Since it also includes some case studies in the chapters, this monograph contributes the next generation logistics in both theoretical and practical ways.
Keywords: logistics, computer technologies, smart system modelling, warehousing, investment, management, logistics systems
Published in DKUM: 09.05.2018; Views: 902; Downloads: 53
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5.
Productivity and economic growth in the European Union : impact of investment in research and development
Andreja Nekrep, Sebastjan Strašek, Darja Boršič, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper focuses on investment in research and development as a factor of labour productivity and economic growth. Our analysis confirms the link between expenditure for research and development (expressed in % of GDP) and labour productivity (expressed in the number of hours worked) based on selected data for EU Member States in the period 1995-2013. A causal link between variables of the concave parabola was confirmed, and the value of expenditure for research and development (2.85% of EU GDP) maximising productivity (per hour of work) was determined based on the examined data. In accordance with these findings, EU’s target of reaching 3% of GDP spent on research and development to be achieved by 2020 seems in support of reaching maximum productivity in the EU.
Keywords: investment in research and development, productivity, economic growth, correlation, panel analysis
Published in DKUM: 03.05.2018; Views: 1062; Downloads: 142
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6.
Quantitative model for economic analyses of information security investment in an enterprise information system
Rok Bojanc, Borka Jerman-Blažič, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper presents a mathematical model for the optimal security-technology investment evaluation and decision-making processes based on the quantitative analysis of security risks and digital asset assessments in an enterprise. The model makes use of the quantitative analysis of different security measures that counteract individual risks by identifying the information system processes in an enterprise and the potential threats. The model comprises the target security levels for all identified business processes and the probability of a security accident together with the possible loss the enterprise may suffer. The selection of security technology is based on the efficiency of selected security measures. Economic metrics are applied for the efficiency assessment and comparative analysis of different protection technologies. Unlike the existing models for evaluation of the security investment, the proposed model allows direct comparison and quantitative assessment of different security measures. The model allows deep analyses and computations providing quantitative assessments of different options for investments, which translate into recommendations facilitating the selection of the best solution and the decision-making thereof. The model was tested using empirical examples with data from real business environment.
Keywords: modelling, security technology, economic metrics, investment, enterprise information system
Published in DKUM: 22.01.2018; Views: 684; Downloads: 317
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7.
Investment-cash flow sensitivity : a study of Iranian listed companies
Mahdi Salehi, Ali Mohammadi, Parisa Taherzadeh Esfahani, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The main objective of the current study is to examine the effect of audit report on cash-flow investment sensitivity of 123 listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during 2006-2010. Regression analysis and synthetic data were used for data analysis. The results showed that receiving modified report has a significant negative effect on cash flow-investment sensitivity. The findings also suggest the significant effect of receiving qualified report and unqualified report with explanatory paragraphs on cash flow-investment sensitivity.
Keywords: auditing, auditor report, cash flow-investment sensitivity, Iran
Published in DKUM: 04.12.2017; Views: 641; Downloads: 119
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8.
Business plan for a Zen garden
Maja Žibrat, Karmen Pažek, Vesna Bukovac, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The placement of a theme park in the form of a Zen garden, as a business opportunity in the Slovenian rural area, is discussed. The design of the garden, with all the major points of a standard business plan, is accurately presented, with a description of the business, branch, and services, market analysis, marketing strategy, financial projections, and a plan of the work and activities. The financial aspect is presented as the amount of investment, net present value, and internal rate of return. The amount of investment is estimated at € 14.891, which should be reimbursed within 4 years of operations. The estimated internal rate of return is estimated at 16.86%. Part of the study is the market analysis - conduction of a survey into knowledge of, and interest in, Zen and Zen gardens. The principles of landscape ecology are respected, as the Zen garden would be set in the woods and will blend seamlessly into the landscape.
Keywords: theme parks, sustainable tourism, investment, financial indicators, landscape ecology
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2017; Views: 1039; Downloads: 156
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9.
The influence of one's own database on the accuracy of forecasting future movements of investment portfolio value
Vesna Trančar, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to present the test results of the hypothesis that the use of one’s own (and foreign) database (used by investment portfolio managers to create indicators of individual stock analyses) has an effect on the accuracy of forecasting future movements of investment portfolio value. In addition to the use of different indicators and methods of stock analysis, the creation of an optimal investment portfolio requires assessment of the suitability and adequacy of the database used in investment portfolio managers′ decisionmaking process; in other words, it is necessary to determine which stocks are to be included in the specific investment portfolio and which are not. The problem of the selection and use of different databases is linked to the question of determining the importance of numerous relevant elements when creating an optimal investment portfolio.
Keywords: database, investment portfolio, investment portfolio managers, stocks
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2017; Views: 828; Downloads: 328
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10.
The effect of the combination of different methods of stock analysis on portfolio performance
Vesna Trančar, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The literature that examines the stock analysis is often faced with the same questions: Which stock analyses should be chosen and which indicators of individual stock analyses give the best information on whether a particular stock should be included in the portfolio? How many indicators and which combination of indicators should you choose to forecast future stock prices as accurately as possible? Can investors use stock analyses to create such a portfolio to meet the investment expectations? The main purpose of this article is to use theoretical methodology to determine whether the use of a combination of indicators from different stock analyses has a positive impact on the profitability of the portfolio.
Keywords: portfolio, stock analysis, portfolio manager, indicators, investment decisions, stock prices
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2017; Views: 865; Downloads: 290
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