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1.
Microstructure analysis of internally oxidized Cu-C composite
Rebeka Rudolf, Ladislav Kosec, Alojz Križman, Ivan Anžel, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: On the basis of experimentally obtained data, it was established that submicron-size bubbles are formed by the internal oxidation of Cu-C composite with fine dispersed graphite particles. They are homogeneously distributed in the Cu-matrix. This process starts with the dissolution of oxygen into the metal at the free surfaces, and continues with the diffusion of oxygen atoms into the volume of copper crystal lattice where they react with the graphite particles. The reactions of dissolved oxygen with carbon yield the gas products (CO2, CO), which cannot be dissolved in the crystal lattice of the matrix. The gas molecules, which are enclosed in the space previously occupied by the graphite, have a greater specific volume than the solid graphite. Consequently, compressive stresses arise in the copper matrix around the bubbles. The interaction of these stress fields with gliding dislocations during loading could improve the mechanical properties of the copper. The internal oxidation kinetic in Cu-C composite depends on the diffusion of oxygen in the copper matrix, and the penetration depth of the internal oxidation front indicates the parabolic nature of the process.
Keywords: metallurgy, Cu-C composites, internal oxidation, bubbles
Published: 03.07.2017; Views: 427; Downloads: 66
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2.
Internal oxidation of silver alloys with tellurium, selenium and sulphur
Gorazd Kosec, Ladislav Kosec, Ivan Anžel, Vasilij Gontarev, Borut Kosec, Milan Bizjak, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Silver alloys with tellurium, selenium and sulphur fulfil the conditions for the internal oxidation. Microstructure of these alloys consists of matrix (dilute solid solution) and particles of intermetallic compounds. Internal oxidation of ternary alloys is very similar to that of the binary alloys, but there are also distinctions in thermodynamics properties of alloying elements. At the direct oxidation of the particles of the intermetallic compound the phenomena of the selective oxidation was observed. Concentration of more reactive elements is increasing in the oxidized part of the particles of the intermetallic compound (Te in AgTeSe alloys). Therefore the precipitated oxides formed with diffusional internal oxidation are richer with less reactive alloying element (Se in AgTeSe alloy). In the precipitated oxide particles the concentration of selenium is more than twice higher than of tellurium.
Keywords: internal oxidation, silver, alloys, compound, particle
Published: 03.07.2017; Views: 482; Downloads: 66
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3.
Pressing of partially oxide-dispersion-strengthened Copper using the ECAP process
Matija Kos, Janko Ferčec, Mihael Brunčko, Rebeka Rudolf, Ivan Anžel, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: A combination of internal oxidation (IO) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was used to explore the possibility of uniting the mechanisms of dispersion and deformation strengthening to improve the properties of a Cu-Al alloy with 0.4 % Al. The IO of Cu-Al billets served in the first step of the experiment as a means for dispersion, strengthening the mantle of the billets with a fine dispersion of nanosized oxide particles. The experimental procedure continued with deformation strengthening performed by ECAP, which allowed an intense plastic strain through simple shear. Material flow in a partly internally oxidized Cu-0.4 % Al billet and in a homogenous reference sample made of modelling mass was also studied to analyse, on the macroscale, the influence of the internal oxidation zone (IOZ) on the material flow behaviour during the ECAP process. The analysis was performed with the aim of revealing the uniformity of the strain distribution and to obtain information about the deformation strengthening across the volume of the billet. We found that the oxide particles have a minor influence on the material flow on the macroscopic scale during the ECAP process. However, the degree of deformation strengthening in the IOZ was much lower than in the unoxidized core region. The combination of IO and ECAP allows us to produce a Cu composite composed of a hardened oxidized mantle region with good electrical and thermal conductivity and a high- hardened core region. This combination represents a new technological route for the production of high-hardness Cu composites, which could also be used at higher temperatures.
Keywords: ECAP, Cu-Al alloys, strengthening mechanisms, internal oxidation
Published: 17.03.2017; Views: 702; Downloads: 60
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4.
In-situ monitoring of internal oxidation of dillute alloys
Mihael Brunčko, Ivan Anžel, Albert C. Kneissl, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a non-destructive measurement method that enables identification and characterization of phenomena during internal oxidation of metallic materials as well as monitoring the kinetics of internal oxidation using "in-situ" electrical resistance measurements. A special laboratory device, based on the unique measurement cell, for the electrical resistance measurements at high temperatures and the model for electrical resistance transformation into an instantaneous microstructure were developed. To accomplish this, the process of internal oxidation was divided into the sequence of the key partial reactions that were presented in the model as the parallel andžor serial connected time variable resistors in the electrical circuit. The validity of the transformation model was experimentally confirmedby internal oxidation of Ag-Sn (2 at.% Sn) alloy at different oxidation temperatures in air atmosphere. The comparison of the results obtained by "in-situ" electrical resistance measurements with those obtained by metallographic analysis and Wagnerćs theory shows that the novel method presents a more effective tool for monitoring of internal oxidation kinetics. The method identifies also the microstructural defects and their influences onthe kinetics of internal oxidation.
Keywords: metallurgy, Ag-Sn alloy, internal oxidation, electrical resistance
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1102; Downloads: 28
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6.
Internal oxidation of Cu-C and Ag-C composites
Gabrijela Čevnik, Gorazd Kosec, Ladislav Kosec, Rebeka Rudolf, Borut Kosec, Ivan Anžel, 2008, short scientific article

Abstract: The internal oxidation in copper-carbon and silver-carbon composites occurs when they are exposed to air or oxygen at high temperature. Solubility of carbon in copper or in silver is very low. The kinetics of oxidation at high temperature and activation energy were determined and the mechanism of internal oxidation was analysed. The kinetics of internal oxidation was determined for both cases and it is depended from the diffusion of oxygen following parabolic time dependence according to Wagner's theory. The activation energy for Cu-C composite is 70.5 kJ/mol, and for Ag-C composite is 50.1 kJ/mol, what is in both cases close to the activation energy for the volume diffusion of oxygen in copper or in silver. In both cases gas products are formed during the internal oxidation of composites. In the internal oxidation zone pores, bubbles occur. The carbon oxidates directly with the oxygen from solid solution as long there is a contact, which breaks down with the presence of gas products. Then the oxidation occurs over the gas mixture of CO and CO2.Pri visokih temperaturah kompoziti bakra in srebra z ogljikom na zraku ali v kisiku reagirajo po mehanizmu notranje oksidacije. Topnost ogljika v trdnem bakru in trdnem srebru je zelo majhna. Analizirali smo kinetiko oksidacije kompozitov, določili aktivacijsko energijo in mehanizem notranje oksidacije. Kinetika oksidacije je pri obeh skupinah materialov odvisna od difuzije kisika in sledi parabolični odvisnosti od časa v skladu z Wagnerjevo teorijo. Aktivacijska energija procesa je za kompozit Cu-C enaka 70,5 kJ/mol, za kompozit Ag-C pa 50,1 kJ/mol, kar je blizu aktivacijski energiji za volumsko difuzijo kisika v trdnem bakru oziroma srebru. Pri oksidaciji kompozita nastajajo plinski produkti. Oksidacija ogljika poteka neposredno s kisikom iz trdne raztopine, ko pa se zaradi nastanka plinske faze stik prekine, pa preko plinske zmesi CO in CO2.
Keywords: internal oxidation, internal oxidation zone, composite, copper, silver, diffusion, kinetics
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1437; Downloads: 21
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