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1.
TESTING PROCYCLICALITY OF STOCK MARKET INDICES IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION AS COMPARED TO WORLD STOCK EXCHANGE CENTRES
Anita Peša, 2011, dissertation

Abstract: We tested the hypothesis of procyclicality for economic activity and the stock exchanges of southeastern European countries relative to the main world Stock Exchange Centers, with a particular emphasis on Croatia (as a country preparing for EU accession) in order to demonstrate the dependence of small financial markets on large ones and to investigate the spillover effect, i.e., the degree and pace of integration of 'new' financial markets into larger ones. Our estimates for the southeastern countries individually and together support the hypothesis of an increase in stock exchange indices in the period of transition, due to the opening of the market economy followed by large capital inflows. Our results for Croatia provided us with evidence that EU accession is a trigger for the better financial integration of a candidate country. The observed countries that are already in the EU wing (Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia) or those in the process of joining (Croatia and Montenegro) were found to be more dependent on the global financial markets and more exposed to adverse co-movements than other transitional southeastern countries (e.g. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia).
Keywords: Stock Exchange, South-East Europe, financial integration, EU accession
Published: 17.02.2012; Views: 2008; Downloads: 92
.pdf Full text (2,61 MB)

2.
Heat integration between two biodiesel processes using a simple method
Anita Kovač Kralj, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: Biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources. Biodiesel can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. This paper presents heat integration between two biodiesel processes. Biodiesel can be produced by the esterification of different fatty acids (high and low boiling point) with alcohols. This simple method for heat integration is based on three possible steps. Simultaneous integration between processes can be performed using a stagewise model with a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) algorithm (step 3), which can include alternatives suggested by pinch analysis of heat transfer between the processes (step 2). The internal integration of individual processes can be performed in step 1. The fraction can be calculated for maximum integration between processes. Integration between the processes can be carried out using all three steps or by the first and third steps or by the last step only, depending on the problems' complexities. This method includes streams of different processes which are heated or cooled using a utility only. The existing heaters and coolers can be left unchanged in their original processes or can be used for integrating heat between processes, with hot and cold utilities being saved. This approach is illustrated by integrating two simulated biodiesel processes.The objective was to maximize additional annual profit for integration between processes by USD8300/a.
Keywords: chemical processing, biodiesel producing, heat integration, nonlinear programming
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1134; Downloads: 33
URL Link to full text

3.
Heat integration in a speciality product process
Majda Krajnc, Anita Kovač Kralj, Peter Glavič, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: The essence of effective process designing is to use methods which are efficient to engineers in practice and not only to scientists. The proposed design procedure is composed of two steps: conceptual one and optimization one. At the conceptual step, pinch design analysis is used. In the optimization step pinch analysis and mixed-integer nonlinear programming method are applied. In the case study analysed, a speciality product is to beproduced in continuous chemical process with a capacity which causes smallerheat flow rates and needs smaller heat exchanger areas than usual. Therefore, an equation for cost estimation of heat exchangers with areas smaller than 7 m2 was developed and used in the optimization procedure. Using thermodynamic pinch analysis and mathematical programming method, the heat integrated structures were synthesized and compared with the base process flowsheet. Finally, the optimal structure was determined.
Keywords: načrtovanje procesov, načrtovanje procesov, ekonomska analiza, prenos toplote, optimizacija, chemical process design, economic analysis, heat integration, optimization
Published: 30.05.2012; Views: 1361; Downloads: 16
URL Link to full text

4.
Design of the optimal total site heat recovery system using SSSP approach
Andreja Goršek, Peter Glavič, Miloš Bogataj, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: Site expansions or changes in production capacities are usually related with changes of utilities demands andžor utility system design. Despite several available and well established techniques for process synthesis and integration, very often, changes in process designs are made on the basis of intuition and experiences of engineers. In this paper possibilities of rational energy consumption and energy integration in an existing site for production of specialty chemicals were studied. On the basis of real process parameters and computer simulation results energy integration was re-examined.Total site analysis using modified Site Sink Source Profiles, which gives a profound insight into the site utility system configuration, heating-cooling demands and cogeneration design was performed. The existing site was found to be very well designed. With only few modifications additional 9% of hot utilities and 5% of cold utilities savings are possible.
Keywords: chemical engineering, process design, optimization, heat integration, cogeneration, pinch method, energy retrofit
Published: 30.05.2012; Views: 1678; Downloads: 38
URL Link to full text

5.
H2 separation and use in fuel cells and CO2 separation and reuse as a reactant in the existing methanol process
Anita Kovač Kralj, Peter Glavič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Fuel-cell efficiencies yield substantial reductions in the emissions of climate-change gases and promise an end to exclusive reliance on carbon fuels for energy. Fuel cells, CO2 reuse, process heat integration, and open gas turbine electricity cogeneration can be optimized simultaneously, using a nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm. The simplified NLP model contains equations of structural and parametric optimization. This NLP model is used tooptimize complex and energy-intensive continuous processes. This procedure does not guarantee a global cost optimum, but it does lead to good, perhaps near-optimum, designs. The plant, which produces methanol, has a surplus of hydrogen (H2) and CO2 flow rates in purge gas. H2 is separated from the purge gas by an existing pressure swing adsorption (PSA) column. Pure H2 can be usedas fuel in fuel cells. CO2 can be separated from the outlet stream (purge gas) by a membrane or absorption system (absorber and regenerator) or an adsorption system and reused as a reactant in a reactor system. Therefore, theproduct yield can be increased and CO2 emissions can be reduced, simultaneously. CO2 emissions can then be reduced at the source. The retrofitted process can be operated within existing parameters. Using a methanol process as a case study, the CO2 emission flow rate can be reduced by4800 t/a. The additional electricity cogeneration in the gas turbine and in fuel cells and additional flow rates of the raw material could generate an additional profit of 2.54 MEUR/a.
Keywords: chemical processing, methanol production, optimization, nonlinear programming, CO2 reuse, fuel cells, heat integration, energy cogeneration
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1490; Downloads: 33
URL Link to full text

6.
Synthesis of non-isothermal heat integrated water networks in chemical processes
Miloš Bogataj, Miguel J. Bagajewicz, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for the simultaneous synthesis and optimization of heat integrated water networks. A new superstructure for heat exchanger network (HEN) synthesis is proposed. The procedure is based on mixed integer non-linear mathematical programming (MINLP). Four relevant examples are presented to illustrate various aspects of the proposed approach.
Keywords: chemical processing, chemical process design, process water networks, water networks, wastewater minimization, heat integration, MINLP, HEN synthesis, superstructures, process synthesis
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1175; Downloads: 34
URL Link to full text

7.
Software tools overview : process integration, modelling and optimisation for energy saving and pollution reduction
Hon Loong Lam, Jiri Klemeš, Zdravko Kravanja, Petar Varbanov, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of software tools based on long experience andapplications in the area of process integration, modelling and optimisation. The first part reviews the current design practice and the development of supporting software tools. Those are categorised as: (1) process integration and retrofit analysis tools, (2) general mathematical modelling suites with optimisation libraries, (3) flowsheeting simulation and (4) graph-based process optimisation tools. The second part covers an assessment of tools which enable the generation of new sustainable alternatives to adapt to the future needs. They deal with waste, environment, energy consumption, resources depletion and production cost constrains. The emphasis of the sustainable process design tools is largely on the evaluation of process viability under sustainable economic conditions, synthesis of sustainable process and supply chain process maintenance and life cycle analysis. Major software tools development and the potential of the research-based tools for sustainable process design task are overviewed in theconcluding part.
Keywords: software tools, process integration, process modelling, process optimisation, energy saving
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1105; Downloads: 34
URL Link to full text

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The role of Biztalk server in business process integration
Boštjan Šumak, Marjan Heričko, 2002, published professional conference contribution abstract

Keywords: business processes, integration, BizTalk Server, BizTalk Orchestration
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 875; Downloads: 17
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