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1.
Reversible pump-turbines - a study of pumping mode off-design conditions
Uroš Ješe, Aleš Skoták, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The role of pumped storage power plants (PSP) in electrical grid systems has been changing in recent years. Demands for switching from pumping to generating mode are becoming increasingly frequent. Moreover, the operating ranges of the reversible pump-turbines used in PSP systems are becoming wider in order to use the PSP as a regulator and a stabilizer of the electrical grid. The primary challenges in the development of pump-turbines are the hydraulic instabilities that occur in pumping and generating modes. The present paper focuses on partial load pumping mode instabilities, such as cavitation and rotating stall. Modern tools, such as CFD, are used for the analysis of the phenomena along with conventional experimental approaches. Rotating stall has been investigated in hydraulic laboratory experimentally and reproduced numerically using commercial CFD code. Three rotating stall cells with a rotational frequency of 2.5% of nominal pump-turbine frequency have been identified. Cavitating vortices related to rotating stall were found in the guide vanes region. Both phenomena indicate highly unstable and potentially dangerous operating conditions that need to be investigated in detail. Understanding the causes for the instabilities will lead to an improved pump-turbine design that will enable safer, more flexible and more reliable operating with fewer unwanted instabilities.
Keywords: pump-turbine, rotating stall, cavitation, Pumping mode instabilities
Published in DKUM: 01.12.2023; Views: 230; Downloads: 3
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2.
The action of a laser on an aluminium target
Višnja Henč-Bartolič, Tonica Bončina, Suzana Jakovljević, Davor Pipić, Franc Zupanič, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: A nitrogen laser beam (337 nm, 6 ns (FWHM), (3.2 [plus minus] 0.2) mJ) was focused with a quartz lens (f = 100 mm) onto an aluminium target in air at normal pressure. The laser irradiation and plasma explosion caused a modification to the Al surface and the deposition of a thin film (droplets) onto a glassy carbon plate. The irradiated target and the deposited material were studied with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a focused-ion-beam (FIB) device. A crater surrounded by a rim was produced on the spot of maximum irradiation on the aluminium target. The crater, very deep in comparison to its width and thickness, was presumably caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The temperatures of the electron and the massive particles were explained.
Keywords: aluminium, laser ablation, thin film deposition, instabilities, temperatures
Published in DKUM: 23.03.2017; Views: 1432; Downloads: 112
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