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1.
The role of performance and environmental sustainability indicators in hotel competitiveness
Zorica Đurić, Jasna Potočnik Topler, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Environmental protection and environmental sustainability are becoming increasingly important factors in the hotel business and their competitiveness, in a market that brings numerous benefits. Environmental sustainability is, increasingly, considered one of the most important functions of the hotel business, as well as communication and marketing, which attracts a larger number of guests. Some of the key aspects of hotel environmental sustainability are performance and environmental sustainability indicators, as well as hotel management of environmental performance in order to establish efficiency in that process. The principal question arising is how environmentally sustainable business affects hotel performance, and what are the most important indicators of the environmental hotel business. The aim of this article is to offer an insight into, and analysis of, performance and indicators of the environmental sustainability of hotels through the relevant literature. A case study from Serbia is used to point out the complexity and the significance of these indicators in the hotel business, as well as to emphasise the importance of environmental reports in the case of Serbia. The findings of our study are significant because they help hotel managers identify new opportunities for employing more sustainable processes for saving resources.
Keywords: sustainable business, tourism, performance, indicators, hotels, communication, marketing
Published in DKUM: 23.01.2024; Views: 61; Downloads: 8
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2.
Energy Efficiency Indicators of a Single Unit House
Iztok Brinovar, Gregor Srpčič, Zdravko Praunseis, Sebastijan Seme, Bojan Štumberger, Miralem Hadžiselimović, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This article deals with the evaluation of energy efficiency indicators of an older single unit house with the use of "KI energija 2017" software, which is widely used among qualified Slovenian experts authorized to carry out the energy performance assessments and issue an energy performance certificate. The energy performance analysis before and after the implementation of proposed measures has shown significant energy saving potential in renovation of existing buildings.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy indicators, energy performance, building renovation, CO2 emissions
Published in DKUM: 04.12.2023; Views: 252; Downloads: 8
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The Nexus between city livability and transportation in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
Ayobami Ademola Akanmu, Kolawole Taofeek Gbadamosi, Felix Kayode Omole, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The livability of cities has been a matter of global concern in recent times. Importantly, the ease of mobility and accessibility in cities remained paramount factors in enhancing residents’ locational decisions and suitability. It is on this basis that this study examined the nexus between city livability and transportation in the Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Anchored on the concept of livability, the study descriptively and inferentially analyzed the results of 1264 questionnaires administered to residents based on key livability themes. The study revealed low satisfaction with the livability key performance indicators. Similarly, the study revealed that most of the assessed transportation infrastructure facilities are in poor condition and thus hinder the ease of commuting and livability in the city. The result of the regression analysis revealed that transportation infrastructure statistically influenced the livability of the Lagos metropolis. The study recommends the need for expedited proactive measures, particularly structural improvement in transportation infrastructure, towards improving the livability of the Lagos Metropolis.
Keywords: city livability, transportation, livability indicators, Lagos Metropolis
Published in DKUM: 13.07.2023; Views: 157; Downloads: 22
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5.
Analysis and improvements of the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the regulating reserves : doctoral dissertation
Marcel Topler, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: This Doctoral Thesis deals with the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the regulating reserves (RRs), i.e., Imbalance Netting Process (INP) and Cross-Border Activation of the RRs (CBRR), between participating Control Areas (CAs), to reduce the costs of balancing energy. The main objective of INP is to interchange the RRs between participating CAs with opposite signs of interchange power variation. In comparison, the main objective of CBRR is to activate the RRs in participating CAs with the same signs of interchange power variation. Both the INP and CBRR aim to release the RRs and reduce balancing energy as part of the power system's safe operation. The Thesis's main objective is to analyze the impact of the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the RRs on mutual oscillations of participating CAs and stability for small disturbances. The Thesis's secondary objective is to analyze the impact of the INP and CBRR on frequency quality, on the provision of Load-Frequency Control (LFC), on balancing energy and unintended exchange of energies between participating CAs. Frequency quality in Continental Europe (CE) has been declining in recent years, so it is important that the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the RRs do not further impair its quality. Both the classic INP and CBRR include a frequency-dependent contribution and, therefore, inherently affect the frequency response of the participating CAs, which is not discussed in the literature. Thus, the impact of the classic INP and CBRR on frequency quality and the provision of LFC is thoroughly evaluated with dynamic simulations of a three-CA test system and eigenvalue analysis of a two-CA system. It is demonstrated that both the classic INP and CBRR reduce the damping of the entire power system. Therefore, a modified implementation of the classic INP and CBRR is presented, and improved INP and CBRR are proposed, which have no impact on the mutual oscillations of participating CAs and stability for small disturbances. Furthermore, the dynamic simulations results confirm that the frequency quality can be improved by the classic INP and CBRR, although there are also cases where it can deteriorate. However, the improved INP and CBRR generally improve the frequency quality in all cases. The improved INP and CBRR also enhance the provision of LFC compared to the classic INP and CBRR. Moreover, the improved INP and CBRR reduce the unintended exchange of energies, thus increasing the economic effects of the INP's and CBRR's activation. The improved INP increases energy exchange, therefore positive economic benefits can be expected in comparison to the system with the classic INP. However, the improved CBRR reduces energy exchange, therefore positive economic benefits can be expected in comparison to the system with the classic CBRR, since energy exchange is paid by CA via bidding process.
Keywords: load-frequency control, imbalance netting, cross-border activation, balancing energy, regulating reserves, eigenvalue analysis, performance indicators, area control error, rate of change of frequency, control area
Published in DKUM: 09.03.2023; Views: 365; Downloads: 76
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6.
Development of a methodology to calibrate a pedestrian microsimulation model : doctoral dissertation
Chiara Gruden, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Walking, as a mode of transport, is becoming widespread, in a world, where urban conglomerates are broadening and becoming denser. Modern lifestyle trends on a side, and eco-friendly policies on the other, push people into walking habits, increasing the need for a suitable, attractive, accessible, connected and safe walking infrastructure. To reach such a result, it is necessary to understand, what are the needs of the users of this infrastructure, taking into consideration the behavioral specificities and the safety needs of pedestrians. In this process pedestrian microsimulation models, surrogate safety techniques, and technologies able to measure specific traits of pedestrian dynamics play a central role. The firsts allow to reproduce repeatedly in a virtual environment a specific infrastructure and to study the response of pedestrians. Nevertheless, to be accurate and efficient, they need to go through long and tedious calibration and validation processes, that are often seen as an important limitation by technicians. Surrogate safety techniques are methods, that are based on the concept, that it is possible to predict the safety level of a location, using near accidents. The main advantage of such techniques is that they are proactive. Till this moment, these techniques have been mainly applied to on-field measurements and are primarily centered on motorized road users. Less interest has been shown for vulnerable road users, especially for pedestrians, who have been less extensively studied. Finally, an element that could highly affect pedestrian safety is their reaction time. Nevertheless, its measurement has long been a big issue. Eye-tracking technology could be one of the solutions, allowing to analyze the directions and objects fixated by pedestrians. These listed issues are also the topics that are addressed by this research work. Focusing on the study of the action of pedestrians while crossing the road on an unsignalized crosswalk set on a roundabout entry leg, the dissertation thesis aims at studying the crossing time, reaction time and surrogate safety aspects typical of pedestrians at the recalled location. The main purpose of the research work is to develop a methodology to calibrate pedestrian Social Force Model at a selected location, using a specifically formulated neural network as a tool to fine-tune model's behavioral parameters. Eight parameters have been chosen to be fine-tuned, five of those are related to pedestrian behavior and three of them are related to car-following behavior. After the selection of input parameters, a feedforward network has been formulated. Its application in the framework of the whole calibration process has brought to considerably positive results, finding a combination of input parameters that improved the performance of the microsimulation model of 37 % in comparison to the default one. The outputs of the calibrated model have been used to calculate three measures of surrogate safety, and also in this case results demonstrated an improvement in the calculation of surrogate safety measures when using the calibrated outcomes in comparison to their calculation on the “default” model outputs. Finally, reaction time measurement and prediction have been addressed by the thesis, in order to be able to describe pedestrian crossing action in its completeness. Quantitative eye-tracking outputs have been the starting point for the calculation of pedestrian reaction time at different locations, and they allowed to create a database of behavioral, geometric, regulatory and flow characteristics, which was the foundation for the formulation of a new prediction model for pedestrian reaction time. The prediction model, which consists of a cascade-correlation neural network, gave a good response to the learning and generalization steps, turning a 74 % correlation between the measured reaction time values and the predicted ones, and being able to follow the variability of these values.
Keywords: pedestrian, microsimulation model, calibration, neural network, surrogate safety indicators, reaction time.
Published in DKUM: 03.10.2022; Views: 667; Downloads: 84
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7.
Performance indicators of management buyouts using the analytic hierarchy process method
Petra Grah, Vesna Čančer, Borut Bratina, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background and Purpose: In Slovenia, few management buyout (MBO) studies have been carried out. The focus was mostly on the motives for acquisition of companies and the success rate of the acquisitions. This paper aims to analyse the indicators which suggest an impending bankruptcy or financial restructuring of companies and explore how these indicators are different for successful and unsuccessful MBOs. Methodology: In the survey, we included 23 selected MBOs in Slovenia between 2005 and 2008, using the following financial and non-financial indicators: profitability, performance, solvency and liquidity, using the analytic hierarchy process method. The key aim of the survey was to use financial and non-financial indicators to study if target companies where bankruptcy or financial restructuring has not yet been initiated prevalently have higher aggregate values compared to those in which bankruptcy or financial restructuring procedures have already begun. Thus, we used the selected indicators to demonstrate one of the possible methods to predict the success of a particular MBO. Results: We found that in most examples of unsuccessful MBOs, target companies have poorer results in terms of performance, solvency and liquidity, when compared to successful MBOs. Based on the selected areas, we divided the results into four quarters. We found that most target companies where MBOs had been unsuccessful are ranked in a lower quarter than most of the target companies where the MBOs had been successful. Conclusion: The papers main contribution is the finding that the selected financial and non-financial indicators differ in cases of successful and unsuccessful MBOs. This knowledge helps us to find ways of avoiding these situations in the future.
Keywords: management buy-outs, management, bankruptcy models, financial and non-financial indicators, the analytic hierarchy process
Published in DKUM: 10.10.2018; Views: 1344; Downloads: 312
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8.
Thinking in messages – determine key performance indicators and create environmental reports
Edeltraud Günther, Daria Meyr, Natalia Mikhalenok, Pavel Pervov, Elena Gerasimova, Iurii Kholopov, Elena Lukenyuk, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: Environmental reporting aims to measure, disclose and to be accountable to internal and external stakeholders about to what extent the company uses the functions of the environment and takes action to improve environmental performance. Thus, the communication of a company has two objectives: for internal stakeholders’ environmental performance is measured in order to prepare decisions of corporate management, for external stakeholders the reporting on the environmental management system, the environmental performance, the ecology orientation of the value-added steps, the dealing with stakeholders and process and product innovations as well as environmental objectives are in the foreground. Finally, it should be noted that environmental reporting is increasingly part of sustainability reporting.
Keywords: environmental management, environmental reports, performance indicators
Published in DKUM: 11.05.2018; Views: 1390; Downloads: 80
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9.
Environmental management & audit 3: Controlling and stakeholders : Tempus project Recoaud
2016, scientific monograph

Abstract: The present scientific monograph, entitled “Environmental management & audit“, is the result of three years’ work on an international project entitled “Environmental management in Russian companies – retraining courses for the sensibilization for and integration of Eco-Audit programs in corporate decision-making (RECOAUD)”. Within its more than 600 pages, the monograph features interesting texts written by 31 authors from the European Union and the Russian Federation, edited by dr. Borut Jereb, Darja Kukovič and dr. Daria Meyr. The monograph “Environmental management & audit“ is composed of four books: “Scarcity and Introduction of Environmental Management”, “Management Systems”, “Controlling and Stakeholders”, and “Environmental Assessment” (Featured Articles). These four topics reflect the complexity, heterogeneity and multidisciplinary of the project Tempus RECOAUD. The reader of the monograph gets a comprehensive overview of theoretical perspectives of environmental management and audit in the chosen areas. Furthermore, the monograph also highlights the results of research in the field of environmental management and audit as well as trends and challenges in the development of this field. Providing insight into theoretical and research findings, the monograph will prove useful to both practitioners and researchers in the field of environmental management and audit; it can also be used for study purposes.
Keywords: logistics, environmental protection, alternatives, cost calculation, cost control, competitive constraints, stakeholders, performance indicators, environmental reports
Published in DKUM: 09.05.2018; Views: 1183; Downloads: 82
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10.
Measuring the concentration of insurance sector : the case of Southeastern European countries
Maja Dimić, Lidija Barjaktarović, Olja Arsenijević, Polona Šprajc, Janez Žirovnik, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Background and purpose: The goal of the paper is to determine the level of concentration in the insurance sector in the following eight countries of South and Eastern Europe: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania in the period from 2007 to 2012. Design/Methodology/Approach: In this context, the analysed indicators of concentration were the market share of the four leading financial institutions (CR4), the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), the coefficient of entropy (E), the coefficient of relative entropy (RE) and Gini coefficient (G). Results: The study showed that the insurance sectors in the analysed countries are highly concentrated on average (according to CR4 indicator), medium concentrated (according to HHI) with high levels of inequality of distribution of market shares between individual participants (in terms of G coefficient), and in the zone of relative uniformity and equality of business entities (according to RE coefficient). The research results point out that the existence of different levels of correlation between the analysed indicators of concentration in the insurance sector, which confirms the conclusion that, in order to obtain relevant and quality conclusions about the level of concentration, it is necessary to review and analyse several indicators of concentration integrally. Conclusion: In all observed indicators of concentration in relation with the density level GDP pc move in the zone of very low value, which on the one hand points to the fact that the analysed countries at a relatively similar level of development have significantly different levels of concentration, but also on the fact that some countries although at different levels of development, have similar levels of concentration.
Keywords: insurance sector, concentration level, concentration indicators
Published in DKUM: 07.05.2018; Views: 1609; Downloads: 130
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