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1.
Corporate governance of slovenian and german telecommunications companies
Natalija Pauman, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: In the master’s thesis we researched corporate governance and the quality of corporate governance. Corporate governance and management of organizations stem from the need and the desire for the existence and development of an organization. It is necessary to establish certain kind of monitoring and controlling in organizations, which we define with the term “corporate governance”. Corporate governance is the system of regulating and controlling corporate conduct and of balancing interests of all shareholders and other stakeholders to which company has influence. The interests of directors and shareholders may be in contrast. The purpose of corporate governance is to find a way to satisfy the interest of both, the board of directors and the shareholders, and at the same time to create long-team and sustainable growth for the company. Corporate governance is extremely important for individual organizations and, consequently, for their business. Compering different organizations, their corporate governance is done in different ways. Corporate governance in developed countries and leading economies is certainly different than in smaller and less developed countries. In this case, arises a question what kind of corporate governance can be labelled as “good” or “first-class” corporate governance. In order to improve corporate governance practices, various legal regulations and other forms of binding and less binding rules, recommendations, codes and standards have been developed. Quality is extremely important for organizations, therefore several methods, methodologies and indexes for measuring the quality of corporate governance have been developed. The purpose of methods is to evaluate and compare the quality of corporate governance between individual companies and between different countries. The results can serve for developing measures to improve corporate governance practices. At the same time, findings can serve to modify and supplement existing legislation and recommendations. The corporate governance index, as a measure of the quality of corporate governance processes, can also be one of the important indicators of the company's potential in order to access to new sources of capital and to reduce the capital´s costs in comparison with other companies. The main purpose of the master's thesis is to study corporate governance and its impact on the business of Slovenian and German telecommunication companies. We make comparison between following companies: Telekom Slovenije, d.d., A1 Slovenija, d.d., Deutsche Telekom AG and Telefónica Deutschland Holding AG. The quality of corporate governance in selected companies was measured with the SEECGAN methodology and index. The methodology was designed to measure the quality of corporate governance. It ensures transparency and provides a structured overview of the main areas of corporate governance between different companies. In empirical part of master’s thesis, we found out that Telekom Slovenije, d.d. has "first-class" quality of corporate governance, A1 Slovenia, d.d. has a "good" quality of corporate governance, Deutsche Telekom AG has a "first-class" quality of corporate governance and Telefónica Deutschland Holding AG has a "good" quality of corporate governance. We found out that both countries have companies with “first-class” and “good” corporate governance. The quality of corporate governance is not related to the national origin or country of operation of the company. One of the main finding of the analysis is that there are no significant differences between the quality of corporate governance in specific areas of SEECGAN index in Slovenian and German companies.
Keywords: corporate governance, quality of corporate governance, telecommunication companies, public stock companies, SEECGAN index and methodology, measuring the quality of corporate governance
Published: 24.10.2019; Views: 285; Downloads: 41
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2.
Evaluation of the constriction size reduction of granular filters due to upstream cohesive base-soil erosion
Samira Azirou, Ahmed Benamar, Abdelkader Tahakourt, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This study is devoted to filter-constrictions analysis and its application with respect to void and constrictions reduction during soil filtration. The experimental investigation involves combined Hole Erosion-Filtration tests using several soils and filters. The base soils are lean clays and the granular filters are selected according to the usual filtration criteria. The combination of the experimental data for porosity variation and the analytical results from the Constriction Size Distribution (CSD) analysis was used to evaluate the constrictions size reduction subsequent to the filtration process. The filtration depth was also estimated according to the retained soil mass and the porosity reduction deduced from the measured hydraulic conductivity. An analytical model of the CSD was applied to the experimental results in order to assess the constrictions reduction. As regards the obtained results, a nonuniform constriction reduction was suggested according to the effective filtration depth, advocating a dynamic filter action.
Keywords: granular filter, internal erosion, constriction, porosity, filtration index
Published: 11.10.2018; Views: 561; Downloads: 345
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3.
Use of a Perth sand penetrometer (PSP) device to determine the engineering parameters of sands
S. D. Mohammadi, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Determining the in-situ engineering parameters of sandy soils has always been a challenge for geotechnical engineers, resulting in several methods having been developed so far. The Perth Sand Penetrometer (PSP) test is one of the most versatile of these methods. It is a considerably faster and cheaper tool than boring equipment, especially when the depth of the exploration is moderate. In the present research, a methodology for the use of a PSP device to evaluate the engineering parameters of sandy soils in laboratory conditions is discussed and the repeatability of the test results is studied. First of all, the tests were performed on typical Tehran young alluvial deposits (poorly graded sandy soil, SP) consistently prepared to 5 densities using the sand raining or pluviation technique. Next, the normal and logNormal distributions of the test data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test were examined. After that, based on the obtained results, the relationship types between the dynamic point resistance index (qd) and other parameters, such as the relative density (Dr), the modulus of elasticity (E), the shear modulus (G) and the friction angle of the soil, were determined. The results show that the obtained relationships were semi-logarithmic and logarithmic, and most of the obtained experimental formulas had a high coefficient of determination (>90%). To evaluate the accuracy of the results, 95% confidence and prediction bands were also used and the results show that all the obtained experimental relationships were appropriate. Finally, the repeatability of the test results was evaluated by calculating the coefficient of variations, which was less than 30% for all the tests.
Keywords: dynamic-point resistance index (qd), engineering parameters, repeatability, statistical methods
Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 379; Downloads: 53
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4.
New computational models for better predictions of the soil-compression index
Ahmet Demir, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The compression index is one of the important soil parameters that are essential for geotechnical designs. Because laboratory and in-situ tests for determining the compression index (Cc) value are laborious, time consuming and costly, empirical formulas based on soil parameters are commonly used. Over the years a number of empirical formulas have been proposed to relate the compressibility to other soil parameters, such as the natural water content, the liquid limit, the plasticity index, the specific gravity. These empirical formulas provide good results for a specific test set, but cannot accurately or reliably predict the compression index from various test sets. The other disadvantage is that they tend to use a single parameter to estimate the compression index (Cc), even though Cc exhibits spatial characteristics depending on several soil parameters. This study presents the potential for Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) and the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy (ANFIS) computing paradigm to predict the compression index from soil parameters such as the natural water content, the liquid limit, the plastic index, the specific gravity and the void ratio. A total of 299 data sets collected from the literature were used to develop the models. The performance of the models was comprehensively evaluated using several statistical verification tools. The predicted results showed that the GEP and ANFIS models provided fairly promising approaches to the prediction of the compression index of soils and could provide a better performance than the empirical formulas.
Keywords: compression index, statistical analysis, genetic expression programming, adaptive neuro-fuzzy, empirical equations
Published: 14.06.2018; Views: 513; Downloads: 42
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5.
Effects of ground granulated blast-furnace slag on the index and compaction parameters of clayey soils
Osman Sivrikaya, Selman Yavascan, Emre Cecen, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The use of industrial wastes in soil stabilization not only provides for the re-use of waste materials, which may cause environmental pollution, but also leads to cost benefits. In this context, the use of industrial wastes in the stabilization of fine-grained soils has become a research topic in recent years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) in clayey soil stabilization. In this study, the GBFS obtained from the Iskenderun iron-steel plant as an industrial waste was ground into two different fineness levels, and the effects of their incorporation into low-plasticity Kolsuz clay and high-plasticity bentonite clay in various rates (5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%) on the particle weight of unit volume, the consistency limits, and the compaction parameters are investigated. Based on the experimental results, it is clear that the GBFS has a positive effect on the stabilization of both clayey soils. It was also concluded that the improvement in bentonite clay is greater than that in Kolsuz clay. Thus, GBFS seems to be a promising material for the stabilization of clayey soils.
Keywords: clayey soils, index properties, granulated blast-furnace slag, stabilization
Published: 14.06.2018; Views: 285; Downloads: 101
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6.
Effect of plasticity and normal stress on the undrained shear modulus of clayey soils
Mehrab Jesmani, Hamed Faghihi Kashani, Mehrad Kamalzare, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: The shear modulus, known as Gmax, is a key parameter for predicting the static and dynamic behavior of soils. Its value decreases by increasing the shear strain. This is because of reducing the soil’s stiffness as a result of increasing the shear deformation. The increasing of the shear modulus by increasing the shear strain is affected by some of the soil properties, such as the Void ratio (e), the Over consolidated ratio (OCR), the Normal stress (σ), the Plasticity index (PI), the Water content (ω%), the Shear strain rate, the Soil structure, and the Loading history, etc. In this paper, undrained, direct shear tests were conducted to study the effect of the plasticity index (PI) and the normal stress (σ) on the shear behavior and the shear modulus of remolded clays. The results show that the normalized shear modulus at a constant strain will generally increase as the σ and PI increase, and the common empirical equations for undisturbed soils at γ = 0~0.1 might be applicable for the disturbed soils too.
Keywords: plasticity index, normal stress, shear modulus, disturbed clayey soils
Published: 11.06.2018; Views: 406; Downloads: 93
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7.
New trends in rock mass characterisation for designing geotechnical structures
Drago Ocepek, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The investigation on designing supporting measures for geotechnical structures consists of the proper selection of the input data for the stress – strain analysis of the excavation process and the selection of retaining measures. In the preliminary phase of investigation the area must be geologically mapped in detail, and discontinuities precisely measured, boreholes and their “in situ” tests listed and samples for laboratory examinations taken. The new method allows rock mass classification for different rock quality, from soft rocks to mixed rock masses, as well as determination of the geological strength index GSI. The limits for using the suggested method are persistent discontinuities in rock mass which lead to translation or rotation failure mechanisms, either in a single plane or as a wedge. In all cases where discontinuities play a significant role, the rock mass structure must be considered and kinematical analyses performed. In other circumstances, a rock may be uniform and reasonably isotropic due to the geometry of discontinuities and their mutual intersections. The value range of GSI is first determined in the beginning of investigation and later in the excavation phase by considering the disturbance factor D, which expresses disturbances caused by excavation methods and rock mass relaxation. The strength and deformability parameters of rocks of different quality are determined by the generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion and applied to shallow and deep tunnels or slopes. Before the start of excavations work and after establishing the retaining measures, the analysis results are checked by monitoring. New methods include the determination of post peak strength parameters of rock mass after relaxation, and routine measurements. The newest measurement system however allows direct readings of displacements of the rock mass in both the elastic and post-peak states. With back analyses we determine the softening behavior of the rock mass and a possible need for increasing retaining measures. Such a design method enables the optimization of retaining measures and the reduction of investment costs.
Keywords: geological strength index – GSI, simulation of a triaxial large scale »in situ« test, numerical modeling, retaining measures, rock reinforcement, monitoring, back analyses, strain softening, rock mass relaxation
Published: 16.05.2018; Views: 536; Downloads: 30
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8.
Is technology sector in a bubble?
Tadej Kelc, 2017, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: The thesis is dealing with the question if the U.S. technology sector is in the bubble. Besides the main aim of this thesis, we are also interested in what the changes are in recent stock market bubbles. The analysis of the sector is key to the investors, because with the early identification of a bubble, they can allocate their funds to other less risky investments. On the other hand, the investors can with the analysis of the sector find out if specific sector is undervalued and thus make above average revenue. Our analysis is based on the study of relative indicators, such as: P/E, P/B, CAPE, P/B, P/S and MarketCap/GDP. We studied the last two historic bubbles and analyzed the current state on the U.S. stock markets. The analysis is focused on the last part of the thesis, where we evaluated what is the current market sentiment in the U.S. stock market, especially in the technology sector. The results are compared to the technology bubble of 2000. In the analysis, we are using U.S. stock market indices as well as the global ones. U.S. stock market is overvalued, which can be argued with high values of the relative indicators compared to the historical average. Some of them show, that market was valued higher only during the Great Depression in 1929 and during the technological bubble in 2000. Remarkably high values are the result of low interest rates and quantitative easing of central banks. The current expansive monetary politics is encouraging risky businesses and increasing credit businesses. The indicator, showing this kind of operations, is the value of investment financed with credit, which is constantly rising in the U.S. since 2009. As a result, stocks and stock indices are increasing as well. With potential abatement of tax rates and other measures of expansive fiscal politics, stock markets could reach even higher values. Currently, we are in the ninth year of bull trend, which is close to the record of 1991, which lasted for nearly a decade. Since 2009, there is optimism prevailing in U.S. stock market, which is reflecting in above average revenue. The feature of the stock market bubble is that it is developing slowly and persistently, thus the main question arises, when will this optimism turn into fear and pessimism, or better said, when will the stock market bubble burst. Still, no one has the answer to that yet.
Keywords: stock market bubble, technology sector, overvalued, stock market, stock market index, dot.com bubble, housing bubble
Published: 08.12.2017; Views: 765; Downloads: 67
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9.
Wiener index of strong product of graphs
Iztok Peterin, Petra Žigert Pleteršek, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: The Wiener index of a connected graph ▫$G$▫ is the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of ▫$G$▫. The strong product is one of the four most investigated graph products. In this paper the general formula for the Wiener index of the strong product of connected graphs is given. The formula can be simplified if both factors are graphs with the constant eccentricity. Consequently, closed formulas for the Wiener index of the strong product of a connected graph ▫$G$▫ with a cycle are derived.
Keywords: Wiener index, graph product, strong product
Published: 30.11.2017; Views: 727; Downloads: 295
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10.
Seaport efficiency and productivity based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Productivity Index
Joanna Baran, Aleksandra Górecka, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Seaport efficiency and productivity are the critical factors for handling of goods in the international supply chains and plays an important role in trade exchange with other countries. It is important to evaluate efficiency and productivity of seaports to reflect their status and reveal their position in competitive environment. The main purpose of this article is to use Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Productivity Index to measure the technical efficiency and total factor productivity of container ports. DEA analysis enables one to assess how efficiently a seaports uses the available inputs to generate a set of outputs relative to other units in the data set. This article presents the use CCR and BCC DEA model, to determine overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of container ports. The analysis gives a possibility to create a efficiency ranking of seaports. The study also applies the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI), which was used to analyze changes in seaports productivity. The study indicated that technological progress had a greater impact on the change in productivity of container ports than changes in technical efficiency.
Keywords: Malmquist Productivity Index, seaports, efficiency, productivity
Published: 17.11.2017; Views: 869; Downloads: 293
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