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Bioactive functional nanolayers of chitosan-lysine surfactant with single- and mixed-protein-repellent and antibiofilm properties for medical implants
Urban Ajdnik, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Olivija Plohl, Lourdes Pérez, Janja Trček, Matej Bračič, Tamilselvan Mohan, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Medical implant-associated infections resulting from biofilm formation triggered by unspecific protein adsorption arethe prevailing cause of implant failure. However, implant surfaces rendered with multifunctional bioactive nanocoatings offer apromising alternative to prevent the initial attachment of bacteria and effectively interrupt biofilm formation. The need to researchand develop novel and stable bioactive nanocoatings for medical implants and a comprehensive understanding of their properties incontact with the complex biological environment are crucial. In this study, we developed an aqueous stable and crosslinker-freepolyelectrolyte−surfactant complex (PESC) composed of a renewable cationic polysaccharide, chitosan, a lysine-based anionicsurfactant (77KS), and an amphoteric antibiotic, amoxicillin, which is widely used to treat a number of infections caused by bacteria.We successfully introduced the PESC as bioactive functional nanolayers on the“model”and“real”polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)surfaces under dynamic and ambient conditions. Besides their high stability and improved wettability, these uniformly depositednanolayers (thickness: 44−61 nm) with mixed charges exhibited strong repulsion toward three model blood proteins (serumalbumin,fibrinogen, andγ-globulin) and their competitive interactions in the mixture in real-time, as demonstrated using a quartzcrystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The functional nanolayers with a maximum negative zeta potential (ζ:−19 to−30mV at pH 7.4), water content (1628−1810 ng cm−2), and hydration (low viscosity and elastic shear modulus) correlated with themass, conformation, and interaction nature of proteins. In vitro antimicrobial activity testing under dynamic conditions showed thatthe charged nanolayers actively inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcusaureus) bacteria compared to unmodified PDMS. Given the ease of fabrication of multifunctional and charged biobased coatingswith simultaneous protein-repellent and antimicrobial activities, the limitations of individual approaches could be overcome leadingto a better and advanced design of various medical devices (e.g., catheters, prosthetics, and stents).
Keywords: silicone implants, protein-repellent, antimicrobial, chitosan, lysine, bioactive coatings, adsorption, QCM-D
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 138; Downloads: 3
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Bioactive coatings with anti-osteoclast therapeutic agents for bone implant : enhanced compliance and prolonged implant life
Dragana Bjelić, Matjaž Finšgar, 2022, review article

Abstract: The use of therapeutic agents that inhibit bone resorption is crucial to prolong implant life, delay revision surgery, and reduce the burden on the healthcare system. These therapeutic agents include bisphosphonates, various nucleic acids, statins, proteins, and protein complexes. Their use in systemic treatment has several drawbacks, such as side effects and insufficient efficacy in terms of concentration, which can be eliminated by local treatment. This review focuses on the incorporation of osteoclast inhibitors (antiresorptive agents) into bioactive coatings for bone implants. The ability of bioactive coatings as systems for local delivery of antiresorptive agents to achieve optimal loading of the bioactive coating and its release is described in detail. Various parameters such as the suitable concentrations, release times, and the effects of the antiresorptive agents on nearby cells or bone tissue are discussed. However, further research is needed to support the optimization of the implant, as this will enable subsequent personalized design of the coating in terms of the design and selection of the coating material, the choice of an antiresorptive agent and its amount in the coating. In addition, therapeutic agents that have not yet been incorporated into bioactive coatings but appear promising are also mentioned. From this work, it can be concluded that therapeutic agents contribute to the biocompatibility of the bioactive coating by enhancing its beneficial properties.
Keywords: bioactive coatings, implants, bone resorption, osteolysis, osteoclats inhibitors
Published in DKUM: 17.08.2023; Views: 273; Downloads: 25
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Biomaterials and host versus graft response : a short review
Tomaž Velnar, Gorazd Bunc, Robert Klobucar, Lidija Gradišnik, 2016, review article

Abstract: Biomaterials and biotechnology are increasing becoming an important area in modern medicine. The main aim in this area is the development of materials, which are biocompatible to normal tissue. Tissue-implant interactions with molecular, biological and cellular characteristics at the implant-tissue interface are important for the use and development of implants. Implantation may cause an inflammatory and immune response in tissue, foreign body reaction, systemic toxicity and imminent infection. Tissue-implant interactions determine the implant life-period. The aims of the study are to consider the biological response to implants. Biomaterials and host reactions to implants and their mechanisms are also briefly discussed.
Keywords: host versus graft disease, GVHD, biomaterial, wound healing, transplant, tissue, prosthetic, implants, biological response, complications
Published in DKUM: 03.08.2017; Views: 1372; Downloads: 192
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Titanium alloy femoral neck fracture - clinical and metallurgical analysis in 6 cases
Samo K. Fokter, Rebeka Rudolf, Andrej Moličnik, 2016, original scientific article

Keywords: hip, arthroplasty, prosthetics, prostheses, implants, injuries, complications, reoperation, orthopedic surgery
Published in DKUM: 24.07.2017; Views: 1262; Downloads: 389
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The effect of nitrogen-ion implantation on the corrosion resistance of titanium in comparison with oxygen- and argon-ion implantations
T. Sundararajan, Zdravko Praunseis, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: Commercially pure (CP) titanium was surface modified with nitrogen-, argon- and oxygen-ion implantations in order to investigate the material's corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid. Five doses were chosen for the ions, ranging from 5.1015 cm-2 to 2.5-1017 cm-2. In-vitro open-cyclic potential-timemeasurements and cyclic polarization studies were carried out to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the modified surface in comparison to an unmodified surface. Specimens implanted at 4.1016 cm-2 and 7.1016 cm-2 showed the optimum corrosion resistance, higher doses showed a detrimental effect on the corrosion resistance. Argon- and oxygen-ion implantation at these doses did not show any improved corrosion resistance, indicating the beneficial role of nitrogen on the corrosion resistance of titanium in the simulated body-fluid environment. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) was employed on the implanted specimens to determine the phases formed with the increasing doses. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the passive film of the implanted samples and on the unimplanted samples were analyzed in order to understand the role of nitrogen in improving the corrosion resistance. The results of the present investigation indicated that nitrogen-ion implantation can be used as a viable method for improving the corrosion resistance of titanium. The nature of the surface and the reason for the variation and the improvement in the corrosion resistance are discussed in detail.
Keywords: metallurgy, ion implantation, orthopedic implants, corrosion, titanium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 2442; Downloads: 99
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