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1.
Eroded rule of law, endemic violence and social injustice in Brazil
Mitja Kovač, Marcela Neves Bezerra, 2020, original scientific article

Keywords: Brazil, human rights, criminal, legislation
Published: 15.01.2021; Views: 79; Downloads: 0

2.
Supplementary material for paper Early spread of COVID-19 in Romania: imported cases from Italy and human-to-human transmission networks
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, Jürgen Lerner, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: This individual-level dataset describes (a) the early spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and (b) the first human-to-human transmission networks, in Romania. Specifically, in the first set of data (a), we profile the first 147 cases referring to: whether an individual is an index case, place of residence, sex, age, probable citizenship, probable country and place of infection, arrival date to a Romanian county, COVID-19 confirmation date as well as the sources of information. Also, the second set of data (b) contains the first observed human-to-human COVID-19 transmission networks (attributes of the nodes and the direction of COVID-19 transmission, i.e. who infects whom). Networks embed 159 nodes and 203 transmission ties. Indirect identifiers are masked / de-identified.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, transmission networks, human mobility, migration, nosocomial infections
Published: 16.12.2020; Views: 75; Downloads: 19
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3.
Early spread of COVID-19 in Romania: imported cases from Italy and human-to-human transmission networks
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, Jürgen Lerner, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: We describe the early spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the first human-to-human transmission networks, in Romania. We profiled the first 147 cases referring to sex, age, place of residence, probable country of infection, return day to Romania, COVID-19 confirmation date and the probable modes of COVID-19 transmissions. Also, we analysed human-to-human transmission networks and explored their structural features and time dynamics. In Romania, local cycles of transmission were preceded by imported cases, predominantly from Italy. We observed an average of 4.8 days (s.d. = 4.0) between the arrival to a Romanian county and COVID-19 confirmation. Furthermore, among the first 147 COVID-19 patients, 88 were imported cases (64 carriers from Italy), 54 were domestic cases, while for five cases the source of infection was unknown. The early human-to-human transmission networks illustrated a limited geographical dispersion, the presence of super-spreaders and the risk of COVID-19 nosocomial infections. COVID-19 occurred in Romania through case importation from Italy. The largest share of the Romanian diaspora is concentrated especially in the northern parts of Italy, heavily affected by COVID-19. Human mobility (including migration) accounts for the COVID-19 transmission and it should be given consideration while tailoring prevention measures.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, transmission networks, human mobility, migration, nosocomial infections
Published: 16.12.2020; Views: 65; Downloads: 33
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4.
Ergonomsko oblikovanje delovnega mesta na montažni liniji žarometov
Aljaž Majcen, 2020, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V diplomski nalogi ergonomsko oblikovanje delovnega mesta na montažni liniji žarometov je predstavljena ergonomska analiza delovnega mesta na montažni liniji žarometov. V uvodu je predstavljeno podjetje, znanstvena veda ergonomija, ter njena načela. Opisani sta tudi ergonomski metodi OWAS in RULA, ter programski paket Tecnomatix Jack. Osrednji del diplomske naloge predstavlja predstavitev delovnega mesta, ki je predmet analize, ocena kontrole z vidika ergonomskih načel in opravljene ergonomske analize. Analize so opravljene ročno in računalniško z uporabo paketa Human simulation Jack. V zaključnem delu diplome so predstavljeni rezultati vseh analiz in predlogi izboljšav.
Keywords: ergonomija, Human simulation Jack, OWAS, RULA, ergonomske metode, ergonomska analiza
Published: 22.09.2020; Views: 103; Downloads: 40
.pdf Full text (2,56 MB)

5.
Prisoner rehabilitation in Romania
Ioan Durnescu, Petronel Mirel Dobrica, Catalin Bejan, 2010, review article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper examines the construction and the reconstruction of the concept of prisoner rehabilitation in the prison context since 1874 until today taking into account the way this concept was reflected in the law or the subsequent official documents. Some figures and trends are introduced into the discussion to help a better understanding of the concept. Rehabilitation is analyzed using a three pillars model: human capital, social capital and legitimate opportunities. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis mainly takes into account the primary and the secondary legislation although in order to illustrate different points statistical figures and research reports are also used. The article starts with the legislation adopted in 1874 and examines all prison legislation up to 2006, focusing particularly on prisoner rehabilitation. Findings: The article concludes that although a lot of progress took place in understanding rehabilitation from all three perspectives (human capital, social capital and legitimate opportunities) there is still room for improvement in developing legitimate opportunities for ex-prisoners. Research limitations: Although the difference between “law in theory” and “law in action” is acknowledged this articles looks mainly to the law texts. This might create a different picture of reality but nevertheless reflects the general perspective used in approaching prisoner rehabilitation. Somehow surprisingly, the subject of prisoner rehabilitation was central in almost all prison legislation although it was not always in line with the prevailing ideology. Practical implications: >As stated above, good and bad examples of behaviour transformation may be observed in the past legislation. The main policy implication is that there was a time when the issue of resettlement or aftercare was considered a penal policy issue. The current legislation is completely silent in this respect. Originality/Value: Prisoner rehabilitation is scrutinized from the historical perspective using a relatively new theoretical framework.
Keywords: prisoner, rehabilitation, social capital, human capital, opportunity system, Romania
Published: 12.05.2020; Views: 197; Downloads: 4
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6.
Perceptions of the Belgrade police detectives about core principles of democratic policing in Serbia
Radomir Zekavica, Želimir Kešetović, Tanja Kesić, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The main subject of this paper is the analysis of attitudes of police officers (detectives) in Belgrade Criminal Investigation Department (CID) about the core principles of democratic policing – protecting the citizens, commitment to the law, legal constraints of police activities and their impact on the effectiveness of policing, control of police and their legal liability. We also analyzed their views on legal solutions regulating the application of those police powers which are of greatest importance for the protection of human rights and freedoms of citizens. Design/Methods/Approach: The work is based on empirical research conducted in the period from September to October 2009 which included 250 (a 25 % sample) police officers in the Belgrade Police Depatment. The questionnaire comprised 49 question, the first six of which pertaining to demographic data. Most questions were of the closed form. Findings: The results of the research show that Belgrade police highly value objectives that are in the function of protecting interests of citizens, cooperation with citizens and absence of all forms of discrimination. They have shown animosity towards the law, as they perceive the law as a factor that limits thier efficiency. Efficiency of the police work is higly valued even at the cost of potentially violating human rights during the investigation. They consider the control of police work neccessary, preceiving the forms of internal control more useful than external control, especially those exerted by courts. Research limitations: This is an exploratory research, its results show tendencies and broad generalizations are not possible. Practical implications: Research results can be useful for police managers and for trainers in adjusting performance and attitudes of police officers in Belgrade PD. Originality/Value: The paper presents the findings of research upon which conclusions have been drawn regarding the perception of subjects regarding the most important issues arising from the democratic reform of police in Serbia.
Keywords: police, law, efficiency, human rights, control, accountability
Published: 04.05.2020; Views: 188; Downloads: 4
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7.
Trial by jury in Russia
Anna Gurinskaya, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The article explores the process of gradual legislative encroachment on the constitutional right to be tried by jury in Russia that had started in 2008 when offenders accused of committing terrorist crimes were denied the right to opt for the jury. The objective is to show how the initial use of the security argument made possible further limitations of this right. Design/Methods/Approach: The research is based upon qualitative analysis of documents (drafts of legal bills, explanatory notes to the drafts, minutes of the Parliamentary hearings), decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and judges’ dissenting opinions, statements of public officials, media reports. Findings: Jury trial that was once a cornerstone of the major judicial reform of the 1990-ies risks becoming a constitutional history artifact. The process of its curtailment came as a result of the inability of this institute to get adjusted to the realities of the Russian criminal process as well as of the need of the state to meet the challenges of the risk society. It is argued that the use of security argument allowed for the initial bill aimed at limiting this right for terrorists to be adopted swiftly and without much debate. It also opened the window of opportunity for further limitation of this right that came under vague agenda of victims’ protection and case review system reform. The author demonstrates that decisions of the Constitutional Court of Russia have played a significant role in promoting limitations of jury trials. Practical Implications: The approach used in the article can be applied to researching other cases of limiting citizens’ rights in the name of security. Originality/Value: The article represents an attempt to provide empirical evidence of the ‘security paradoxes’ described in the security literature.
Keywords: trial by jury, comparative criminal justice, Russian criminal justice, security, human rights, fair trial
Published: 16.04.2020; Views: 227; Downloads: 14
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8.
Harmonization of the Police law of the Republic of Serbia with the European standards of human rights protection
Tomislav Radović, Žarko Braković, 2015, review article

Abstract: Purpose: Universality of human rights as part of natural and inalienable civilization values makes the rights a current issue of scientific treatment from various aspects. Legal regulation of human rights has both international and national component. On the other hand, governmental law-enforcement organizations play a very significant role in the realization, implementation and protection of human rights. A significant segment of the national legislation compliance belongs to the harmonization of laws and other state regulations with the European standards concerning human rights. With this work authors tried to realize the opportunities for further harmonization of police regulations in Serbia related to the field of human rights in accordance with European standards. Design/Methods/Approach: The authors use the method of analyzing expert literature, laws, international regulations and legal sources, as well as the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, the inductive-deductive method, and the compilation method. Findings: Serbia is obliged to comply with the laws of the European Union as part of the Stabilization and Association Agreement. The overall harmonization of law will certainly require harmonizing law-enforcement laws and provisions. The current Law on Police will very quickly be replaced by a new legislature in that, inter alia, pay special attention to compliance with its provisions with European human rights standards. Originality/Value: The article is a comprehensive, critical and presents a detailed analysis of the situation and proposals for harmonization of police regulations with European human rights standards. With regard to the process of Serbia joining the European Union conclusions expressed office may be relevant to the preparation of accession negotiations in the chapters dealing with such problems. The paper also aims at preparing a new impetus to the Police Act of the Republic of Serbia on issues related to normative regulation of human rights performance.
Keywords: harmonization, human rights, police, organization, standards, Serbia
Published: 16.04.2020; Views: 182; Downloads: 9
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9.
Diplomatic assurances and the stateʼs responsibility when considering extraditing a person whose human rights may be violated
Vesna Stefanovska, 2017, professional article

Abstract: Purpose: The potential tension between a state’s need to protect its citizens from national security risks and to respect fundamental human rights is illustrated by current controversies concerning the use of diplomatic assurances in the context of extradition. The need to respect inviolable human rights brings into play the use of assurances in extradition matters, especially if the right to life and prohibition of torture are concerned. Design/Methods/Approach: Inductive and deductive methods are used to systematise legal cases which contain human rights violations in extradition proceedings and hold a direct relationship with diplomatic assurances. The analytical method is applied to obtain a clearer picture about violations of human rights in the extradition process. Findings: Diplomatic assurances are given by the requesting states for the purpose of supporting the extradition request and assuring that criminal offenders will not be subjected to ill-treatment or violations of other human rights guaranteed by the European Convention of Human Rights. Research Limitations / Implications: In practice, it has been proven that diplomatic assurances are highly problematic because international law does not generally outlaw the use of such assurances, but establishes legal requirements concerning the use of such assurances in the extradition context. Originality/Value: The article reflects the use of diplomatic assurances in extradition cases, an area that has received greater attention in past years because many states have been found responsible for human rights violations, but at the same time many suspects have managed to avoid extradition because judicial authorities have denied extradition due to assurances not being given.
Keywords: diplomatic assurances, extradition, torture, right to life, violation of human rights
Published: 15.04.2020; Views: 136; Downloads: 10
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10.
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