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Presence of alien Prunus serotina and Impatiens parviflora in lowland forest fragments in NE Slovenia
Mirjana Šipek, Eva Horvat, Ivana Vitasović Kosić, Nina Šajna, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Temperate alluvial, riparian and lowland forests are the European forests with the greatest presence of invasive alien plants. Consequently, identifying the environmental conditions for and other drivers behind the establishment of invasive species in natural forest communities is crucial for understanding the invasibility of these habitats. We focused on fragments (patches) of Illyrian oak-hornbeam forest in NE Slovenia, which are the least studied in this regard. Because alien phanerophytes and therophytes are significantly over-represented compared to native plantsin lowland forests, we selected two representative invasives: the phanerophyte Prunus serotina and the therophyte Impatiens parviflora. By using logistic regression models on vegetation surveys, environmental data based on Ellenberg´s indicator values, and patch metrics, we identified patch characteristics explaining the presence of each species. Moreover, we included human impact in the models. We reveal significant characteristics differentiating P. serotina from I. parviflora. We also show that the perimeterarea ratio and soil nutrients of the forest patches correlate significantly with the presence of P. serotina, while human disturbance correlates significantly with the presence of I. parviflora. Our results and a similar approach for other invasive plant species can be applied to assess habitat invasibility on potential and species’ current geographic distribution, as well as to develop management plans.
Keywords: biological invasions, forest fragmentation, landscape metrics, habitat characteristics, human presence, anthropogenic factors, neophytes, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2024; Views: 48; Downloads: 3
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The importance of autonomy of European Union member states with regard to the use of genetically modified organisms on the right to healthcare : an analysis of judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union
Katja Meško Kuralt, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The European Union Member States (hereinafter: EU MS) have the possibility of restricting or banning the cultivation of GMOs under the Directive 2015/412 but under certain conditions. EU MS must also pay attention to the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the Euro-pean Union or Treaty Establishing the European Community (hereinafter: TFEU), the provi-sions relating to the free movement of goods, which is one of the key objectives of the func-tioning of the European Union. This contribution is based on the data obtained from an analy-sis of Court of Justice of the European Union (hereinafter: CJEU) cases concerning the use of genetically modified organisms (hereinafter: GMO(s)). The analysis highlights the link between environmental risk assessment and the right to healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to make the individual aware of the possibilities they have regarding the use of GMOs.
Keywords: Directive 2001/18, Directive 2015/4120, Directive 2018/350, high level of protection of human life and health, possibility of restricting or prohibiting the production of GMOs, free movement of goods, environmental risk assessment
Published in DKUM: 26.06.2024; Views: 90; Downloads: 12
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Compatibility of unilateral sanctions with public international law : magistrsko delo
Andrej Stanišić, 2024, master's thesis

Abstract: This master’s thesis systematically analyses the possible obligations and rules of public international law that must be respected when States impose sanctions without the authorisation of the United Nations Security Council or unilateral sanctions. This type of sanctions has been used throughout history and States are increasingly resorting to imposing them within international conflicts. However, they have never been regulated by any authoritative act, and the decisions of international judicial organs are scarce. In the absence of specific rules regulating the use of unilateral sanctions, this thesis focuses on the general provisions and obligations of public international law that States must respect when imposing sanction regimes against other States. One of the fundamental principles of international relations is the principle of sovereign equality of States, under which States must refrain from intervening in the domestic affairs of other States and must respect their sovereign immunity. Furthermore, States are obligated to respect treaty provisions they have consented to, one of them being the World Trade Organisation’s Marrakesh Treaty, under which States need to respect the rules enshrined General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, like most favoured nation principle. Unilateral sanctions such as freezing of assets of States and central banks, travel bans for State representatives, import and export bans and trade embargos all constitute a threat to breach these obligations of public international law. However, even if States impose unlawful unilateral sanctions, their unlawfulness may be precluded under the rules of lawful countermeasures. Inconsistent State practice, divergent opinions of various scholars and lack of codifications make all these rules and prohibitions difficult to determine. However, given the recent increase in the use of unilateral sanctions, this grey area of international law is beginning to be clarified.
Keywords: State sovereignty, sanctions, legal countermeasures, coercion, national matters, human rights, immunities, inviolability, security exception, most favoured nation.
Published in DKUM: 24.06.2024; Views: 136; Downloads: 22
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A game theoretical model for the stimulation of public cooperation in environmental collaborative governance
Yinhai Fang, Matjaž Perc, Hui Zhang, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Digital technologies provide a convenient way for the public to participate in environmental governance. Therefore, by means of a two-stage evolutionary model, a new mechanism for promoting public cooperation is proposed to accomplish environmental collaborative governance. Interactive effects of government-enterprise environmental governance are firstly explored, which is the external atmosphere for public behaviour. Second, the evolutionary dynamics of public behaviour is analysed to reveal the internal mechanism of the emergence of public cooperation in environmental collaborative governance projects. Simulations reveal that the interaction of resource elements between government and enterprise is an important basis for environmental governance performance, and that governments can improve this as well as public cooperation by increasing the marginal governance propensity. Similarly, an increase in the government's fixed expenditure item of environmental governance can also significantly improve government-enterprise performance and public cooperation. And finally, the effect of government's marginal incentive propensity on public environmental governance is moderated by enterprises' marginal environmental governance propensity, so that simply increasing the government's marginal incentive propensity cannot improve the evolutionary stable state of public behaviour under the scenario where enterprises’ marginal environmental governance propensity is low.
Keywords: game theory, human behaviour, cooperation, mathematical model, common goods
Published in DKUM: 28.05.2024; Views: 169; Downloads: 0

Development of a human anatomy learning application for the HoloLens platform
Aleksandr Shishkov, 2024, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: This thesis explores the development of an augmented reality (AR) application for educational purposes, focusing on human anatomy visualization using the Microsoft HoloLens 2 device. Leveraging Blender, Unity, and the Mixed Reality Toolkit (MRTK), the project aims to create immersive educational experiences. Key stages involve model selection, preparation in Blender, and addressing export challenges to Unity. Performance optimizations and scripting solutions ensure efficient functionality, while the user interface is designed for intuitive navigation. Through features like layer visibility toggling and object manipulation, the application offers a comprehensive learning experience. Ongoing testing ensures optimal performance on the HoloLens 2 device, highlighting the potential of AR in education to enhance engagement and learning outcomes.
Keywords: human anatomy, augmented reality, Microsoft HoloLens 2, Unity
Published in DKUM: 22.05.2024; Views: 189; Downloads: 9
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Climate change-related displacement and the determination of refugee status under the 1951 Refugee Convention
Elijah Sriroshan Sritharan, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Climate change and climate-driven migration are two of the defining challenges of the twenty-first century, and there is no legal framework for protecting those displaced across national borders for climate-related reasons. The 1951 Refugee Convention hardly applies to human mobility in the context of climate change. This paper was written in the hopes of initiating a discussion concerning an alternative perspective through which persons fleeing natural disasters linked to climate change may satisfy the eligibility conditions for recognition of refugee status. Expanding the definition of refugee as defined in the Convention by including the notion of vulnerability to climate disasters that are caused by the underlying socio-economic conditions in the claimant’s home country and the role of discrimination in causing differential exposure to the climate-related disasters in legal definitions might open the door for the availability of refugee status for persons fleeing in the context of climate change. This paper proposes the adoption of a reformed human rights-based interpretation, particularly with regard to the individual nature of refugee status determination. Recalibrating the Convention to facilitate climate-induced migration could reduce political tension and social unrest in receiving countries.
Keywords: climate change, climate-driven migration or displacement, climate migrants, climate refugees, determination of refugee status, the 1951 refugee convention, human rights-based approach, socio-economic conditions, vulnerability to climate disasters, the role of discrimination, rights-based climate litigation
Published in DKUM: 19.04.2024; Views: 125; Downloads: 6
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Long way to the 2014 Istanbul Convention : its role and significance
Eva Hršak, Jernej Kovač, 2023, review article

Abstract: This article investigates the historical aspects of physical violence in intimate relation-ships. The primary purpose is to illustrate the legal aspects and emotional dynamics of physical violence in intimate relationships, focusing on differences in perspective of various historical eras. We analyzed the Istanbul Convention, which represents a base document for preventing physical violence in domestic environments. In addition, we have analysed curriculum in kindergarten. We have discovered that the topics from the Istanbul Convention are incorporated in the kindergarten.
Keywords: physical violence, intimate relationship, human rights, legislation, Istanbul Convention
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 178; Downloads: 8
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Human beta cell functional adaptation and dysfunction in insulin resistance and its reversibility
Maša Skelin, Jan Kopecky, Jurij Dolenšek, Andraž Stožer, 2023, other scientific articles

Abstract: Background: Beta cells play a key role in the pathophysiology of diabetes since their functional adaptation is able to maintain euglycemia in the face of insulin resistance, and beta cell decompensation or dysfunction is a necessary condition for full-blown type 2 diabetes (T2D). The mechanisms behind compensation and decompensation are incompletely understood, especially for human beta cells, and even less is known about influences of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or immunosupressive therapy after transplantation on these processes and the development of posttransplant diabetes. Summary: During compensation, beta cell sensitivity to glucose becomes left-shifted, i.e., their sensitivity to stimulation increases, and this is accompanied by enhanced signals along the stimulus-secretion coupling cascade from membrane depolarization to intracellular calcium and the most distal insulin secretion dynamics. There is currently no clear evidence regarding changes in intercellular coupling during this stage of disease progression. During decompensation, intracellular stimulus-secretion coupling remains enhanced to some extent at low or basal glucose concentrations but seems to become unable to generate effective signals to stimulate insulin secretion at high or otherwise stimulatory glucose concentrations. Additionally, intercellular coupling becomes disrupted, lowering the number of cells that contribute to secretion. During progression of CKD, beta cells also seem to drift from a compensatory left-shift to failure, and immunosupressants can further impair beta cell function following kidney transplantation. Key Messages: Beta cell stimulus-secretion coupling is enhanced in compensated insulin resistance. With worsening insulin resistance, both intra- and intercellular coupling become disrupted. CKD can progressively disrupt beta cell function, but further studies are needed, especially regarding changes in intercellular coupling.
Keywords: human beta cell, functional adaptation, dysfunction, insulin resistance
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 142; Downloads: 10
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Human threat circuits : threats of pain, aggressive conspecific, and predator elicit distinct BOLD activations in the amygdala and hypothalamus
Teresa Bertram, Daniel Hoffmann Ayala, Eva Maria Huber, Felix Brandl, Georg Starke, Christian Sorg, Satja Mulej Bratec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Threat processing, enabled by threat circuits, is supported by a remarkably conserved neural architecture across mammals. Threatening stimuli relevant for most species include the threat of being attacked by a predator or an aggressive conspecific and the threat of pain. Extensive studies in rodents have associated the threats of pain, predator attack and aggressive conspecific attack with distinct neural circuits in subregions of the amygdala, the hypothalamus and the periaqueductal gray. Bearing in mind the considerable conservation of both the anatomy of these regions and defensive behaviors across mammalian species, we hypothesized that distinct brain activity corresponding to the threats of pain, predator attack and aggressive conspecific attack would also exist in human subcortical brain regions.
Keywords: human, threat responses, translational neuroscience, threat conditioning, threat types, MRI, threat circuit
Published in DKUM: 12.04.2024; Views: 337; Downloads: 277
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