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INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS: PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS UNDER PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
Ana Povh, 2014, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Preceeding work is analysing a highly problematic field of public international law, where in one actual state several principles of international law, humanitarian legal rules, international political interests and humanitarian conscience are coliding intensely. This is the case of civil wars where human rights of civilians are violated on a massive scale. Since they do not include a foreign element by the nature, possibilities of international protection are very lessened. Apathy of the international community and the failure to enforce international law are both permitting for human suffering of unimaginable extensions taking place in immediate vicinity of the 'developed world'. Rules of conduct in the international community are being set by the international public law, which serves in interests of States. Until inclusion of international organisations with supranational authorities legal order was therefore designed only by their will. Later development has made it possible that rules were created by global consensus which suggested creation of norms with humanitarian nature. This leads to conclusion that there is no centralised legislator present in the international sphere and that obligatory norms are hard to find. Nevertheless humanitarian norms with cogent nature are still present, their uncovery is linked to the source from which they derive. Determining the source therefore leads to determination of those humanitarian rules that subjects need to respect in all circumstances. Such enforcement inside State's territorial integrity sadly still represents a meeting point for two contradictoring but hierarchally ecvivalent principles of international order, resulting in unsanctionising of mass breaches of international humanitarian rules. These two principles are the principle of State's sovereignty and the principle for respect of human rights and they result in such international policy which places the primal responsibilty for ensuring the respect of human rights in the hands of a State. Any external intervention is almost impossible.Consequences of such international understanding are vividly seen in civil or internal conflicts where protection of civilian population is in sole discretion of the warring parties. Still, universally applicable international law which can not be violated even in the times of war exists. Determination of humanitarian rules which have to be performed on the field, is dependant on the qualification of the sources from which they derive. International treaties, by their nature being obligatory for their signatories, comprise the first group of sources. Second group is producing rules which are waiting for bestowment of this quality and their possible cogency is dependant on State practice and on the so-called common legal sense of obligation. Most important of them is international customary law which produces rules, essential for filling those legal holes, left behind by international treaties. Moreover they are obligatory for every Party involved, even though they have not expressed their commitment. Together with universal human rights, provided by international human rights law, they represent a cornerstone of international legal order for the field of internal armed conflicts. Their enforcement is in the most benefit of civilian population.
Keywords: International public law, international humanitarian law, human rights law, internal armed conflicts, non-international armed conflicts, fundamental guarantees, war, Geneva Conventions, United Nations, civilian population, peremptory norms, customary law.
Published: 09.06.2014; Views: 949; Downloads: 54
.pdf Full text (1014,07 KB)

3.
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL - HISTORY, PRESENT, FUTURE
Klementina Dolinšek, 2014, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: While one of the greatest achievements of the United Nations has been the creation of international human rights norms and standards, its human rights protection mechanisms have failed to fulfil their mandate. In the early 2000’s, the Commission on Human Rights, as the major United Nations body working to promote and protect human rights, started to lose its credibility. It was criticised by a wide spectrum of the international community including states, non – governmental organizations and academics for its politicisation and polarisation, double standards, loss of focus, ineffectual decision making and a dubious membership composition. As a consequence of persistent negative responses, in June 2006 the Commission on Human Rights was replaced by the Human Rights Council, in an attempt to create a credible United Nations human rights body. This thesis focuses on the institutional differences between both bodies, their application in practice, and the advantages and disadvantages of the new human rights watchdog. In order to provide as comprehensive a comparison as possible, the research also includes examination of various United Nations documents, media postings, contributions made by non – governmental organizations, and academic studies.
Keywords: Commission on Human Rights, Human Rights Council, criticism, advantage, disadvantage, membership composition, politicisation, credibility, losing focus, Universal Periodic Review.
Published: 08.05.2014; Views: 828; Downloads: 76
.pdf Full text (1,16 MB)

4.
HATE SPEECH AND INTERNET HUMOUR
Aja Lovrec, 2014, master's thesis

Abstract: There are different ways of perceiving and understanding humour. Some people comprehend the content on the internet social sites as humorous, others as hateful. The aim of this master’s thesis is to raise awareness of hate speech on the internet. The survey was designed for the purpose of highlighting the difference between hate speech and humour in the example of internet memes. There were 513 Slovene participants answering the questionnaire on how they understand selected internet memes – as humour or as hate speech. The sample of English native speakers was smaller (57 respondents), yet enough to compare the results based on different independent variables (English language proficiency and gender). It was confirmed that there is a thin line between hate speech and humour. Some memes that were considered humorous for Slovene respondents were understood as offensive for English native speakers. We concluded that the level of English proficiency does not significantly influence considering memes as humorous or hate speech. The independent variable of gender has some influence on the respondens perception of a meme as humorous or hateful. Based on the survey analysis, it is concluded that memes which might be perceived as hate speech could also be understood as humorous due to the general purpose of a meme (memes are meant to be humorous and funny).
Keywords: hate speech, humour, internet memes, human rights, free speech
Published: 08.10.2014; Views: 2008; Downloads: 222
.pdf Full text (5,17 MB)

5.
5th traditional law conference of the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Law, Özyegin University Istanbul, Faculty of Law, and University of Maribor, Faculty of Law: Corruption – a deviation or an inherent part of human society? Some legal considerations
2017, proceedings of peer-reviewed scientific conference contributions (international and foreign conferences)

Abstract: Corruption is a dishonest or unethical conduct by a person (also company, state…) entrusted with a position of authority, with the intention to acquire certain benefits or advantages. Nowadays, corruption is present in all states and societies, and could be widespread in all legal and human relations. Corruption is mostly associated with embezzlement, bribery, coercion, extortion, blackmail… Therefore, the corruption is mostly of illegal nature. International and national anti-corruption initiatives and actions pay special attention to the fields where the impact of corruption affects the most vulnerable groups of people. On the international level the most active role is played by Transparency International, an international organisation fighting against corruption.
Keywords: corruption, criminal law, human rights, illicit arms trafficking, family law
Published: 10.03.2017; Views: 588; Downloads: 27
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6.
Human rights education in foreign language learning
Melita Kukovec, 2017, review article

Abstract: Today's world is marked by numerous violations of human rights. As teachers, we would like to believe that future violations can be prevented through human rights education which empowers individuals to build and promote a universal human rights culture. Young people should be given the chance to practise what it means to live together in an open and free society while at school; they, therefore, need to be equipped with a knowledge of human rights and the skills to put these rights into practice. The paper addresses issues relating to including lessons on human rights into Slovene primary and secondary education as part of the foreign language learning syllabus, as well as the need to empower future teachers to react appropriately if their students reject other people's perspectives out of hand, or even express radical ideas in class that run contrary to democratic values. It also presents various strategies for enabling future teachers to develop the skills necessary to implement human rights education.
Keywords: human rights, education, personal development, foreign language learning
Published: 09.08.2017; Views: 661; Downloads: 237
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7.
Important issues of providing genetic services in Serbia from the perspective of medical law
Hajrija Mujović-Zornić, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Medico-legal issues that arise from the work of genetic health services became in recent time very current, especially regarding the Serbian law issues and dilema how to treat rare diseases patients among other vulnerable groups, wish often were not recognized in society. The legal system shall be an important mechanism, which could help by giving some solutions concerning the relations, rights and obligations of all parties in providing genetic services (informing, counseling, testing, keeping privacy). The law is invited to establish a delicate balance between legal qualification and more practical issues. In many countries there are medical guidelines for health professionals and biologists who work in the area of human genetics, according to which is done the essential rules for medical proceedings, with also significant parameters for legal decisions. Sometimes the legal situation is more complex when it includes malpractice cases due to violation of rights or breach of professional duties and contractual obligations in genetics. All issues should be consider from the aspect of Serbian legislator efforts to make a new codification in the area of genetic diagnostics, which is adopted in January 2015.
Keywords: medical genetic, legislation, human rights, case of Serbia
Published: 09.10.2018; Views: 130; Downloads: 22
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8.
Diplomatic assurances and the stateʼs responsibility when considering extraditing a person whose human rights may be violated
Vesna Stefanovska, 2017, professional article

Abstract: Purpose: The potential tension between a state’s need to protect its citizens from national security risks and to respect fundamental human rights is illustrated by current controversies concerning the use of diplomatic assurances in the context of extradition. The need to respect inviolable human rights brings into play the use of assurances in extradition matters, especially if the right to life and prohibition of torture are concerned. Design/Methods/Approach: Inductive and deductive methods are used to systematise legal cases which contain human rights violations in extradition proceedings and hold a direct relationship with diplomatic assurances. The analytical method is applied to obtain a clearer picture about violations of human rights in the extradition process. Findings: Diplomatic assurances are given by the requesting states for the purpose of supporting the extradition request and assuring that criminal offenders will not be subjected to ill-treatment or violations of other human rights guaranteed by the European Convention of Human Rights. Research Limitations / Implications: In practice, it has been proven that diplomatic assurances are highly problematic because international law does not generally outlaw the use of such assurances, but establishes legal requirements concerning the use of such assurances in the extradition context. Originality/Value: The article reflects the use of diplomatic assurances in extradition cases, an area that has received greater attention in past years because many states have been found responsible for human rights violations, but at the same time many suspects have managed to avoid extradition because judicial authorities have denied extradition due to assurances not being given.
Keywords: diplomatic assurances, extradition, torture, right to life, violation of human rights
Published: 15.04.2020; Views: 29; Downloads: 5
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9.
Harmonization of the Police law of the Republic of Serbia with the European standards of human rights protection
Tomislav Radović, Žarko Braković, 2015, review article

Abstract: Purpose: Universality of human rights as part of natural and inalienable civilization values makes the rights a current issue of scientific treatment from various aspects. Legal regulation of human rights has both international and national component. On the other hand, governmental law-enforcement organizations play a very significant role in the realization, implementation and protection of human rights. A significant segment of the national legislation compliance belongs to the harmonization of laws and other state regulations with the European standards concerning human rights. With this work authors tried to realize the opportunities for further harmonization of police regulations in Serbia related to the field of human rights in accordance with European standards. Design/Methods/Approach: The authors use the method of analyzing expert literature, laws, international regulations and legal sources, as well as the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, the inductive-deductive method, and the compilation method. Findings: Serbia is obliged to comply with the laws of the European Union as part of the Stabilization and Association Agreement. The overall harmonization of law will certainly require harmonizing law-enforcement laws and provisions. The current Law on Police will very quickly be replaced by a new legislature in that, inter alia, pay special attention to compliance with its provisions with European human rights standards. Originality/Value: The article is a comprehensive, critical and presents a detailed analysis of the situation and proposals for harmonization of police regulations with European human rights standards. With regard to the process of Serbia joining the European Union conclusions expressed office may be relevant to the preparation of accession negotiations in the chapters dealing with such problems. The paper also aims at preparing a new impetus to the Police Act of the Republic of Serbia on issues related to normative regulation of human rights performance.
Keywords: harmonization, human rights, police, organization, standards, Serbia
Published: 16.04.2020; Views: 33; Downloads: 5
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10.
Trial by jury in Russia
Anna Gurinskaya, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The article explores the process of gradual legislative encroachment on the constitutional right to be tried by jury in Russia that had started in 2008 when offenders accused of committing terrorist crimes were denied the right to opt for the jury. The objective is to show how the initial use of the security argument made possible further limitations of this right. Design/Methods/Approach: The research is based upon qualitative analysis of documents (drafts of legal bills, explanatory notes to the drafts, minutes of the Parliamentary hearings), decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and judges’ dissenting opinions, statements of public officials, media reports. Findings: Jury trial that was once a cornerstone of the major judicial reform of the 1990-ies risks becoming a constitutional history artifact. The process of its curtailment came as a result of the inability of this institute to get adjusted to the realities of the Russian criminal process as well as of the need of the state to meet the challenges of the risk society. It is argued that the use of security argument allowed for the initial bill aimed at limiting this right for terrorists to be adopted swiftly and without much debate. It also opened the window of opportunity for further limitation of this right that came under vague agenda of victims’ protection and case review system reform. The author demonstrates that decisions of the Constitutional Court of Russia have played a significant role in promoting limitations of jury trials. Practical Implications: The approach used in the article can be applied to researching other cases of limiting citizens’ rights in the name of security. Originality/Value: The article represents an attempt to provide empirical evidence of the ‘security paradoxes’ described in the security literature.
Keywords: trial by jury, comparative criminal justice, Russian criminal justice, security, human rights, fair trial
Published: 16.04.2020; Views: 51; Downloads: 7
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