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Determining the grain size distribution of granular soils using image analysis
Nihat Dipova, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Image-processing technology includes storing the images of objects in a computer and processing them with the computer for a specified purpose. Image analysis is the numerical expression of the images of objects by means of mimicking the functioning of the human visual system and the generation of numerical data for calculations that will be made later. Digital image analysis provides the capability for rapid measurement, which can be made in near-real time, for numerous engineering parameters of materials. Recently, image analysis has been used in geotechnical engineering practices. Grain size distribution and grain shape are the most fundamental properties used to interpret the origin and behaviour of soils. Mechanical sieving has some limitations, e.g., it does not measure the axial dimension of a particle, particle shape is not taken into consideration, and especially for elongated and flat particles a sieve analysis will not yield a reliable measure. In this study the grain size distribution of sands has been determined following image-analysis techniques, using simple apparatus, non-professional cameras and open-code software. The sample is put on a transparent plate that is illuminated with a white backlight. The digital images were acquired with a CCD DSLR camera. The segmentation of the particles is achieved by image thresholding, binary coding and particle labeling. The geometrical measurements of each particle are obtained using an automated pixel-counting technique. Local contacts or limited overlaps were overcome using a watershed split. The same sample was tested by traditional sieve analysis. An image-analysis-based grain size distribution has been compared with a sieve-analysis distribution. The results show that the grain size distribution of the image-based analysis and the sieve analysis are in good agreement.
Keywords: image analysis, image processing, grain size, sand
Published in DKUM: 18.06.2018; Views: 1061; Downloads: 117
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Mean grain size as a function of spectral amplitude: a new regression law for marine sediment cores
Nelly Zanette, Darinka Battelino, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Geophysics has been developed in order to supply indicative estimations in soil mechanics like the grain size distribution of finely grained soils as day, silt and fine sands. The paper describes the attempt to characterize porous and saturated marine sediments with a non destructive technique which is the acoustic wave, in order to determine the correlation with geotechnical measurements. The characterization of physical parameters of marine sediments was based on research methods which permit to describe the parameters defining different types of sediment and zones of sedimentation; to determine fundamental parameters that influence the propagation of the acoustic waves in saturated and porous means; to define quick and indicative methods for characterization of physical parameters of analysed means. The acoustic measurements were carried out at SACLANT-NATO of La Spezia (I), where the Vertical Multi Sensor Core Logger (V-MSCL) was used. The results of acoustic tests were compared to the grain size curves of the sediments and the propagation characteristics such as velocity, density, porosity and absorption of experimentally determined data. The analyses are based 011 various mathematical models presented in. literature, in order to predict and to describe physical mechanisms of the wave propagation using a simplification of the sediment structure. The target of the study was to determine a new mathematical law that linked the mean grain size to a directly measurable parameter such as the spectral amplitude, and to offer the possibility to obtain the first indicative value of the sediment mean grain size. The determined exponential law represents an innovative and quick approach to determine a physical characteristic of saturated and porous sediments such as the grain size in a non destructive way based on the spectral analysis of the wave propagation form.
Keywords: soil mechanics, marine sediments, finely grained soil, acoustic waves, grain size curve
Published in DKUM: 17.05.2018; Views: 949; Downloads: 80
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Microstructure of NiTi orthodontic wires observations using transmission electron microscopy
Janko Ferčec, Darja Jenko, Borut Buchmeister, Franc Rojko, Bojan Budič, Borut Kosec, Rebeka Rudolf, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: This work presents the results of the microstructure observation of six different types of NiTi orthodontic wires by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Within these analyses the chemical compositions of each wire were observed in different places by applying the EDS detector. Namely, the chemical composition in the orthodontic wires is very important because it shows the dependence between the phase temperatures and mechanical properties. Micro- structure observations showed that orthodontic wires consist of nano-sized grains containing precipitates of Ti2Ni and/or TiC. The first precipitated Ti2Ni are rich in Ti, while the precipitated TiC is rich in C. Further investigation showed that there was a difference in average grain size in the NiTi matrix. The sizes of grains in orthodontic wires are in the range from approximately 50 to 160 nm and the sizes of precipitate are in the range from 0,3 μm to 5 μm.
Keywords: orthodontic wires, nickel-titanium orthodontic wire, NiTi wire, shape memory alloys, SMA wires, microstructure, transmission electron microscopy, TEM, average grain size
Published in DKUM: 03.07.2017; Views: 1122; Downloads: 113
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Microstructural and phase analysis of CuAlNi shape-memory alloy after continuous casting
Mirko Gojić, Stjepan Kožuh, Ivan Anžel, Gorazd Lojen, Ivana Ivanić, Borut Kosec, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The results of the characterization of a CuAlNi shape-memory alloy after continuous casting technology are shown. Using this procedure a bar with a diameter of 8 mm was manufactured. After solidification of the alloy the microstructure characterization was carried out using optic microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Our results showed that the as-cast alloy consisted of the parent β1 and β1’ martensite phases. The martensite phase primary as the needle-like inside grains was observed. Martensite laths have different orientations inside particular grains. It was found that the average grains size is 98.78 µm. The grain diameter near to the external surface is higher than in the center. The average hardness of the alloy was 275 HV1.
Keywords: shape memory alloys, martensite, continuous casting, grain size
Published in DKUM: 16.03.2017; Views: 987; Downloads: 112
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