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Heterogeneous aspirations promote cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game
Matjaž Perc, Zhen Wang, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: To be the fittest is central to proliferation in evolutionary games. Individuals thus adopt the strategies of better performing players in the hopeof successful reproduction. In structured populations the array of those that are eligible to act as strategy sources is bounded to the immediate neighbors of each individual. But which one of these strategy sources should potentially be copied? Previous research dealt with this question either by selecting the fittest or by selecting one player uniformly at random. Here we introduce a parameter that interpolates between these two extreme options. Setting equal to zero returns the random selection of the opponent, while positive favor the fitter players. In addition, we divide the population intotwo groups. Players from group select their opponents as dictated by the parameter , while players from group do so randomly irrespective of . We denote the fraction of players contained in groups and by and , respectively. The two parameters and allow us to analyze in detail how aspirations in the context of the prisoner's dilemma game influence the evolution of cooperation. We find that for sufficiently positive values of there exist a robust intermediate for which cooperation thrives best. The robustness of this observation is tested against different levels of uncertainty in the strategy adoption process and for different interaction networks. We also provide complete phase diagrams depicting the dependence of the impact of and for different values of , and contrast the validity of ourconclusions by means of an alternative model where individual aspiration levels are subject to evolution as well. Our study indicates that heterogeneity in aspirations may be key for the sustainability of cooperation in structured populations.
Keywords: evolutionary game theory, prisoner's dilemma, spatial games, aspirations, social systems, physics and society
Published: 19.06.2017; Views: 468; Downloads: 176
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Uncertainties facilitate aggressive behavior in a spatial hawk-dove game
Matjaž Perc, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: We study effects of additive spatiotemporal random variations, introduced to the payoffs of a spatial hawk-dove game, on the evolution of the reconciliatory and the aggressive strategy. We show that uncertainties facilitate aggressive behavior for a broad range of resource values. In particular, aggressors thrive best if stochastic influences are of the order of magnitude of deterministic payoff values. We argue that random payoff variations are potent and plausible promoters of aggressive behavior in human as well as animal societies if only the hawk-dove game payoff ranking applies.
Keywords: evolutionary game theory, hawk-dove game, noise, spatial games
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 890; Downloads: 23
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Modeling of city logistics
Sabrina Trafela, 2013, master's thesis

Abstract: Master thesis has it's fundamentals in the use of theoretical methods for modeling purposes on the case study of city logistics and modeling of traffic flow and transportation problem on the city of Győr, Hungary. In practical part, we made a measurements of traffic flow on street sections in the city of Győr. With Android application, we gathered necessary data. We also prepared maps of the route sections of the city from various entry points to the final, destination point. Purpose of our thesis was finding the optimal solution for the delivery to the city centre with the use of strategic games. Final step was a preparation of mathematical model in Mathematica programming environment, which gave us results, but most important is the development of the model itself. Model is constructed in a way that can be use in various possible situations and on different city centres or case studies.
Keywords: city logistics, strategic games, Nash Equilibrium, modeling of traffic flow
Published: 17.10.2013; Views: 1029; Downloads: 66
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The Hunger Games as a Dystopia
Darko Voeroeš, 2015, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: This diploma thesis will explore all three books of Suzanne Collins’s blockbuster young adult dystopian trilogy The Hunger Games. I have compared the novels and their film adaptations, elaborated on the history and creation of the trilogy, identified the dystopian elements within it, and analysed it from a Frommian, Veblenian and Žižekian perspective. I have also sought to explain why both the novels and big-screen adaptations have become so massively popular. I have found that one reason for the popularity of this trilogy is that it resembles the old heroic myths that never go out of fashion. Furthermore, many of the themes in the trilogy have contemporary relevance and examine some of humanity’s most pressing issues.
Keywords: The Hunger Games, Suzanne Collins, dystopia, young adult, heroic myth
Published: 12.11.2015; Views: 1037; Downloads: 80
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Evolution of interactions and cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game
Chunyan Zhang, Jianlei Zhang, Guangming Xie, Long Wang, Matjaž Perc, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are allowed to establish new interactions with others. By employing a simple coevolutionary rule entailing only two crucial parameters, we find that different selection criteria for the new interaction partners as well as their number vitally affect the outcome of the game. The resolution of the social dilemma is most probable if the selection favors more successful players and if their maximally attainable number is restricted. While the preferential selection of the best players promotes cooperation irrespective of game parametrization, the optimal number of new interactions depends somewhat on the temptation to defect. Our findings reveal that the "making of new friends" may be an important activity for the successful evolution of cooperation, but also that partners must be selected carefully and their number limited.
Keywords: evolutionary games, prisoner's dilemma, coevolution, complex networks, friendship
Published: 19.06.2017; Views: 222; Downloads: 183
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Evolutionary establishment of moral and double moral standards through spatial interactions
Dirk Helbing, Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, György Szabó, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: Situations where individuals have to contribute to joint efforts or share scarce resources are ubiquitous. Yet, without proper mechanisms to ensure cooperation, the evolutionary pressure to maximize individual success tends to create a tragedy of the commons (such as over-fishing or the destruction of our environment). This contribution addresses a number of related puzzles of human behavior with an evolutionary game theoretical approach as it has been successfully used to explain the behavior of other biological species many times, from bacteria to vertebrates. Our agent-based model distinguishes individuals applying four different behavioral strategies: non-cooperative individuals ('defectors'), cooperative individuals abstaining from punishment efforts (called 'cooperators' or 'second-order free-riders'), cooperators who punish non-cooperative behavior ('moralists'), and defectors, who punish otherdefectors despite being non-cooperative themselves ('immoralists'). By considering spatial interactions with neighboring individuals, our model reveals several interesting effects: First, moralists can fully eliminate cooperators. This spreading of punishing behavior requires a segregation of behavioral strategies and solves the 'second-order free-rider problem'. Second, the system behavior changes its character significantly even after very long times ('who laughs last laughs best effect'). Third, the presence of a number of defectors can largely accelerate the victory of moralists over non-punishing cooperators. Fourth, in order to succeed, moralists may profit from immoralists in a way that appears like an 'unholy collaboration'. Our findings suggest that the consideration of punishment strategies allows one to understand the establishment and spreading of 'moral behavior' by means of game-theoretical concepts. This demonstrates that quantitative biological modeling approaches are powerful even in domains that have been addressed with non-mathematical concepts so far. The complex dynamics of certain social behaviors become understandable as the result of an evolutionary competition between different behavioral strategies.
Keywords: evolutionary game theory, social dilemmas, spatial games, moral, cooperation
Published: 16.06.2017; Views: 377; Downloads: 202
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Coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on evolving random networks
Qiang Li, Azhar Iqbal, Matjaž Perc, Minyou Chen, Derek Abbott, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: We study the coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on weighted and directed random networks in the realm of the prisoners dilemma game. During the evolution, agents can break and rewire their links with the aim of maximizing payoffs, and they can also adjust the weights to indicate preferences, either positive or negative, towards their neighbors. The network structure itself is thus also subject to evolution. Importantly, the directionality of links does not affect the accumulation of payoffs nor the strategy transfers, but serves only to designate the owner of each particular link and with it the right to adjust the link as needed. We show that quantum strategies outperform classical strategies, and that the critical temptation to defect at which cooperative behavior can be maintained rises, if the network structure is updated frequently. Punishing neighbors by reducing the weights of their links also plays an important role in maintaining cooperation under adverse conditions. We find that the self-organization of the initially random network structure, driven by the evolutionary competition between quantum and classical strategies, leads to the spontaneous emergence of small average path length and a large clustering coefficient.
Keywords: evolutionary games, quantum strategies, coevolution, random networks, cooperation
Published: 19.06.2017; Views: 322; Downloads: 163
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Use of materials and aids for teaching English to young learners
Jana Rečnik, 2016, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: The aim of this thesis is to present the use of different materials and aid when teaching English to young learners. Through the history, many different methods were used for teaching foreign languages, which will be presented in this thesis. Furthermore, it is important to know which characteristics should a good teacher have and which are the roles of a teacher in the classroom. The aim is also to present different visual material, songs, stories and games that can be used while teaching young learners. The last part of my thesis is focused on lesson observations at language school Eduka, Slovenj Gradec. Three different age groups were observed and mainly I was focused on the use of different materials and aids in different age groups.
Keywords: English language teaching, young learners, teaching materials and aids, games, stories, songs, visual material, lesson observations
Published: 05.09.2016; Views: 521; Downloads: 45
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