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1.
Comparison of the mechanical properties of hardfacings made by standard coated stick electrodes and a newly developed rectangular stick electrode
Edvard Bjelajac, Andrej Skumavc, Gorazd Lojen, Mirza Manjgo, Tomaž Vuherer, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Cladding with a stick electrode is one of the oldest arc processes for adding a deposit on a base material. The process is suitable for outdoor working, but the disadvantages are low productivity and large dilution rates. In this work, a simple solution is proposed, which would enable cladding of a larger area with one pass and decrease the dilution rate at the same time—a new type of electrode was developed, exhibiting a rectangular cross-section instead of a round one. Hardfacings, welded with E Fe8 electrodes according to EN 14 700 Standard were welded on mild steel S355 J2 base material with three different coated stick electrodes. The first one was a commercially available, standard, round hardfacing electrode, the second was the same, but with a thinner coating, and the third one was a newly developed rectangular electrode. All three types had equal cross-sections of the metallic core and the same type of coating. Manufacturing of the rectangular electrodes in the laboratory is explained briefly. One- and multi-layer deposits were welded with all three types. Differences were observed in the arc behavior between the round and rectangular electrodes. With the rectangular electrode, the microstructure of the deposit was finer, penetration was shallower, and dilution rates were lower, while the hardness was higher, residual stresses predominantly compressive, and the results of instrumented Charpy impact tests and fracture mechanics tests were better.
Keywords: hardfacing, dilution rate, hardness, Charpy impact toughness, residual stress, fracture toughness
Published in DKUM: 14.05.2024; Views: 120; Downloads: 8
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2.
Evaluation of the impact and fracture toughness of a nanostructured bainitic steel with low retained austenite content
Mihael Brunčko, Peter Kirbiš, Ivan Anžel, Leo Gusel, Darja Feizpour, Tomaž Irgolič, Tomaž Vuherer, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The impact and fracture toughness of a nanostructured, kinetically activated bainitic steel was determined using Standard methods. Prior to testing, the steel was quenched in oil and aged naturally for a period of 10 days in order to obtain a fully bainitic microstructure with a retained austenite content below 1%, resulting in a high hardness of 62HRC. The high hardness originated from the very fine microstructure of bainitic ferrite plates formed at low temperatures. It was determined that the impact toughness of the steel in the fully aged condition improved remarkably, whereas the fracture toughness was in line with expectations based on the extrapolated data available in the literature. This suggests that a very fine microstructure is most beneficial to rapid loading conditions, whereas material flaws such as coarse nitrides and non-metallic inclusions are the major limitation for obtaining a high fracture toughness.
Keywords: evaluation of fracture toughness, impact toughness, nanostructured bainite, natural aging, low retained austenite content, kinetically activated bainite KAB
Published in DKUM: 16.02.2024; Views: 260; Downloads: 17
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3.
Fracture toughness of HSLA welds made on penstock material
Zdravko Praunseis, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The presence of different microstructures along the pre-crack fatigue front has a significant effect on the critical crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). This value is the relevant parameter for the safe servicing of welded structures (penstocks). In the case of specimens with the through-thickness notch partly in the weld metal, partly in the heat-affected zone, and partly in the base material, i.e., using the composite notched specimen, the fracture behaviour significantly depends on the portion of the ductile base material, the size, and the distribution of mismatching factor along the vicinity of the crack front.
Keywords: High Strength low Alloyed Steel, CTOD Fracture Toughness Testing, CTOD-R resistance Curve, Welded joints
Published in DKUM: 22.12.2023; Views: 466; Downloads: 6
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4.
Influence of Heat Treatments on Microstructure of Electron Beam Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy : magistrsko delo
Damir Skuhala, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: Additive manufacturing of metallic parts is increasing in popularity and starting to emerge as a new competitive manufacturing process. Printed structures from Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, produced by electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM), possess columnar prior β grains and layer bands, alongside an ultrafine lamellar microstructure, which is prone to low ductility and thus requiring thermal post-processing. Several heat treatments were performed in α + β and β field, in one or multiple stages. The results showed that bi-lamellar microstructure can be obtained, and that selection of annealing temperature and cooling rate determines the morphology, thickness, and distribution of both primary and secondary α features. Mechanical properties were evaluated on three selected heat treatments. Annealing of the As-built condition was performed at 710°C (HT1) and 870°C (HT2), resulting in lamellar microstructure with basketweave morphology. In two-stage heat treatment (HT3), the temperature in the first stage has exceeded β transus, while in the second, annealing was performed again at 870°C. The microstructure was characterized as a mixture of lamellar and bi-lamellar with large α colonies inside the rearranged prior β grains. Air cooling was performed in all HT from the final annealing stage. Strength and hardness have decreased with increasingly coarser microstructural features, while fracture toughness was improved, except in HT1, where the decrease in the fracture toughness was mainly attributed to reduced intrinsic toughening. As-built and HT1 conditions were effected by microstructural texture, causing inconsistent fracture morphology, reduced crack roughness and scattering in results. The influence of texture was decreased by coarser microstructure in HT2, while crack tortuosity was increased. Very unpredictable fracture behaviour was observed in HT3 due to large α colonies, as their orientation determines the areas of ductile or cleavage crack propagation.
Keywords: Titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V, additive manufacturing, EBAM, heat treatments, microstructural optimization, mechanical properties, fracture toughness
Published in DKUM: 11.05.2020; Views: 1672; Downloads: 274
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5.
Intelligent system for prediction of mechanical properties of material based on metallographic images
Matej Paulič, David Močnik, Mirko Ficko, Jože Balič, Tomaž Irgolič, Simon Klančnik, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: This article presents developed intelligent system for prediction of mechanical properties of material based on metallographic images. The system is composed of two modules. The first module of the system is an algorithm for features extraction from metallographic images. The first algorithm reads metallographic image, which was obtained by microscope, followed by image features extraction with developed algorithm and in the end algorithm calculates proportions of the material microstructure. In this research we need to determine proportions of graphite, ferrite and ausferrite from metallographic images as accurately as possible. The second module of the developed system is a system for prediction of mechanical properties of material. Prediction of mechanical properties of material was performed by feed-forward artificial neural network. As inputs into artificial neural network calculated proportions of graphite, ferrite and ausferrite were used, as targets for training mechanical properties of material were used. Training of artificial neural network was performed on quite small database, but with parameters changing we succeeded. Artificial neural network learned to such extent that the error was acceptable. With the oriented neural network we successfully predicted mechanical properties for excluded sample.
Keywords: artificial neural network, factor of phase coherence between the surfaces, fracture toughness, image processing, mechanical properties, metallographic image, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2017; Views: 1436; Downloads: 424
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6.
Low temperature impact toughness of the main gas pipeline steel after long-term degradation
P. O. Maruščak, Irina Danyliuk, R.T. Biščak, Tomaž Vuherer, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The correlation of microstructure, temperature and Charpy V-notch impact properties of a steel 17G1S pipeline steel was investigated in this study. Within the concept of physical mesomechanics, the dynamic failure of specimens is represented as a successive process of the loss of shear stability, which takes place at different structural/scale levels of the material. Characteristic stages are analyzed for various modes of failure, moreover, typical levels of loading and oscillation periods, etc. are determined. Relations between low temperature derived through this test, microstructures and Charpy (V-notch) toughness test results are also discussed in this paper.
Keywords: impact toughness, fracture, damage, gas pipeline, steel, degradation
Published in DKUM: 03.04.2017; Views: 1371; Downloads: 429
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7.
Flaw acceptability assessment detected in HSLA steel weld joints
Inoslav Rak, 1999, original scientific article

Abstract: The flow size in weld joint can be determined by non destructive examination (NDE). Because of different mateials, and loading as well as because of the possible effect of corrosive environment the question arises how to assess reliably the allowable falw size in different weld joint parts. The presence of flaws is obvious but the possibilities of their revealing are limited and not always posssible. The flaw size and distribution are the essential parameters for the structure capacity of bearing under high loading the weld joint. The larger is the allowable flaw size anticipated, the safer is the welded structure, and the easiest is the detection of the flaw size by NDE methods. Thus for assessing the safety of complex loaded welded structure, machine parts or equipment life time, it is obligatory to consider the requirements of different "Fitness for Purpose" systems. The article presents the possibility of assessing the detected flaw by means of NDE if the material fracture toughness of the area where the fatigue crack tip located is known. The fatigue crack represents the severest discontinuity that can occur in a welded joint. The principles of IIW Guidance on Assessment of The Fitness for Purpose of Welded Structures - IIW/IIS-SST-1157-90 and BS PD 6493 and separately ETM that treats mis-matched weld joints are shown and used.
Keywords: zvarni spoji, dopustna velikost napake, lomna žilavost, trdnostna heterogenost, primernost za uporabo, weld joint, allowable flaw size, fracture toughness, strength mis-match, fitness for purpose
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1625; Downloads: 24
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8.
Weld joint fracture behaviour of HSLA steels dissimilar in strength
Inoslav Rak, Arpad Treiber, 1998, original scientific article

Abstract: The effect of strength differences (mismatch) between weld metal and two base metals as well as local variations of strength within weld metal/HAZ zones on the toughness properties were discussed. The significance of local fracture toughness measurement technique was also discussed by comparing the CTOD results of [delta]5 and British Standard [delta]BS. Some differences between the two techniqes were discussed in particular for CGHAZ toughness of similar and dissimilar joints.
Keywords: welding, welded joints, fracture mechanics, HSLA steels, fracture toughness
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1416; Downloads: 41
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9.
Role of residual stresses on fracture properties of under-matched butt weld
Inoslav Rak, Vladimir Gliha, 1999, original scientific article

Abstract: Under-matched weld joints were adopted for producing a penstock of 47 mm wall thickness and 4200 mm diameter, to improve the weldability. The isothermal Robertson wide plate test on the under-matched weld joints, were the allowable stress level was 0.6 of the yield stress, proved that the longitudinal stresses caused the crack propagation alog the weld joint to deviate into tough base material where it was arrested. The arrest temperature was between -10 and -20°C. The behaviour of the crack propagation was the reason to omit the thermal stress relieving of the pipe section and on circumferential weld joints executed on this side. One can always take into consideration the role of axial residual stresses when assessing whether to use, or not, under-matched weld joints in severer loaded structures.
Keywords: strjeni zvar z nižjo mejo tečenja, zaostale napetosti, potek loma, lastnosti ujetja, lomna žilavost, under-matched weld joint, residual stresses, fracture path, arrest properties, fracture toughness
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1485; Downloads: 43
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10.
An integrity analysis of washing machine holders
Nenad Gubeljak, Matej Mejač, Jožef Predan, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper deals with structure integrity analysis of the holder for the carrying cross of a washing machine drum. Premature fracture of the holder occurred between mechanical sustainable tests of washing machine in the factory. In order to prevent fracture, the task was to determine the reasons for premature fracture of the holder and to estimate the suitability of the new design of the holder cross. Input data for structure integriry analysis were obtained by material by mechanical testing of used materials. Stress and strain analysis of holder limit load was performed by finite element modeling of holder. Dynamic tests of holders with two different thicknesses were done on a servo-hydraulic machine in order to find dynamical strength and endurance of holder. Fracture behaviour of holders is defined as initiation and propagation of crack. The obtained behaviour confirmed that the new design of holders reduces stress concentration in the critical region. Consequently, the new holder subjected to the same dynamic load can endure a higher number of cycles until breakage. The total number of cycles overcomes industrial testing requirements.
Keywords: lomna mehanika, visokociklično utrujanje, preizkušanje lomne žilavosti, nosilci kadi pralnega stroja, mejna obremenitev, ocena celovitosti konstrukcije, fracture mechanics, high cycle fatigue, fracture toughness testing, washing machine holders, washing machine drums, structure integrity assessment, limit load
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1748; Downloads: 109
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