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Effect of particle roundness and morphology on the shear failure mechanism of granular soil under strip footing
Babak Karimi Ghalehjough, Suat Akbulut, Semet Çelik, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This study investigates the effect of particles roundness and morphology on the shear failure mechanism of soil. A strip footing was modeled under laboratory conditions. Calcareous soil was tested with three roundness classes: angular, rounded and well-rounded shapes with sizes of 0.30 mm to 4.75 mm. These were divided into six different groups at three relative densities of 30%, 50% and 70%. A series of photographs was taken during the tests and analyzed using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to understand the soil-deformation mechanism. The results showed that increasing the sample sizes increased the affected area of the soil. At the same time, increasing the relative density caused a punching failure mechanism that went towards the general failure. The shear failure mechanism of the soil changed from general toward punching shear failure with increasing particle roundness. This effect was larger with the smaller materials. Underneath the affected layers of soil, the angular samples were deeper than the rounded and well-rounded samples. The affected depth in the angular soil was approximately 1.5B in the smallest size group. This was more than 3B and near 4B in the largest size group. Both the sides and the underlying soil layers should be considered on angular soils. The area under the footing becomes more important than the side parts after increasing the roundness of the particles.
Keywords: particle roundness, morphology of particles, shear failure mechanism, strip footing, PIV method, ultimate bearing capacity
Published in DKUM: 11.10.2018; Views: 1569; Downloads: 495
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Critical setback distance for a footing resting on slopes
Rajesh Prashad Shukla, Ravi Sankar Jakka, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Structures are often constructed on slopes in hilly regions, which results in a lack of soil support on the sloping side of the footings. This causes a reduction in the bearing capacity of the footings. Though there are number of studies about foundations on slopes, most of these studies are confined to surface footings only (i.e., without the depth of embedment). Furthermore, there is no consensus in the literature over the influence of the setback distance on bearing capacity. This paper presents the results of finite-element analyses on a strip footing resting on stable slopes. A very large number of possible soil slopes with different footing depths were analysed. From the results it is found that the critical setback distance increases with an increase in the internal friction angle of soil, the depth of the footing and the slope gradient. The critical setback distance is varying between 2 to 4 times the footing width for soils with a low internal friction angle, while it is more than 10 times the footing width for soils with a higher internal friction angle. A regression equation is also developed based on the outcomes of the study. The developed equation is able to predict the influence of various parameters affecting the bearing capacity of a footing resting over the slopes. The results are compared with earlier experimental and numerical studies.
Keywords: bearing capacity ratio, cohesionless soil, footing, setback distance, slopes
Published in DKUM: 18.06.2018; Views: 1265; Downloads: 237
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A practical method for the optimal design of continuous footing using ant-colony optimization
Boonchai Ukritchon, Suraparb Keawsawasvong, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present a practical method for the optimal design of a continuous footing subjected to vertical and horizontal loads. The design problem of finding the optimal size of footing as well as the minimum steel reinforcement is formulated in a nonlinear minimization form. The continuous footing is subjected to the vertical and horizontal loads acting on the top of the column. There are four design variables in the design problem, i.e., the width of the footing, the thickness of the footing, the soil-embedment depth, and the amount of steel reinforcement. The required geotechnical constraints include the bearing capacity, overturning, as well as global sliding and local sliding at the footing corners. Short-term stability and long-term stability are considered simultaneously in the same formulation. The structural constraints are enforced to control the shear force and bending moment within the section resistance. The formulation of the problem’s constraints leads to the nonlinear programming, whose objective function is to minimize the total cost of the footing material, including the concrete and steel reinforcement. The optimal solution is solved using the ant-colony optimization algorithm MIDACO. The proposed optimization method is demonstrated through the actual design of the footing for supporting a large machine moving on rails.
Keywords: optimal design, footing, stability, nonlinear programming, ant-colony optimization
Published in DKUM: 18.06.2018; Views: 1421; Downloads: 79
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Experimental and numerical studies of T-shaped footings
Nihat Kaya, Murat Ornek, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: In addition to vertical axial loads, the footings of structures are often subjected to eccentric loads caused by the forces of earth pressures, earthquakes, water, wind, etc. Due to eccentric loading, the two edges settle by different amounts, causing the footing to tilt and then the pressure below the footing does not remain uniform. The T-shape is proposed as a footing shape for improving the bearing capacity of shallow footings against the action of eccentric loads. The vertical insertion of the rigid T-shaped footing, into the bearing soil, provides considerable resistance, against both of sliding and overturning, enough to regain the reduction in bearing capacity and increase in settlement. In this study, a series of experimental and numerical results from the ultimate loads and settlement of T-shaped footings are reported. A total of 48 model tests were conducted for investigating the effects of different parameters, such as the problem geometry and soil density. The problem geometry was represented by two parameters, the load eccentricity (e) and the insertion depth (H) of the T-shape into the loose and dense sand soil. After the experimental stage, the numerical analyses were carried out using a plane strain, two-dimensional, finite-element-based computer program. The behaviour of the T-shape footing on sand beds is represented by the hardening soil model. The results of the experimental and numerical studies proved that the ultimate bearing capacity of a footing under eccentric loads could be improved by inserting a vertical central cut-off rigidly connected to the footing bottom. The load settlement curves indicate that the higher load eccentricity results in a decrease in the bearing capacity of the strip footing. It was also proved that the ultimate bearing capacity values can, depending on the soil density, be improved by up to four times that of the loose sand case. This investigation is considered to have provided a useful basis for further research, leading to an increased understanding of the T-shaped footing design.
Keywords: model test, finite-element method, T-shaped footing, eccentric loading, sand
Published in DKUM: 14.06.2018; Views: 1207; Downloads: 54
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Numerical analysis of circular footings on natural clay stabilized with a granular fill
Murat Ornek, Mustafa Laman, Ahmet Demir, Abdulazim Yildiz, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: In this study, numerical predictions of the scale effect for circular footings supported by partially replaced, compacted, layers on natural clay deposits are presented. The scale- effect phenomenon was analyzed according to the footing sizes. Numerical analyses were carried out using an axisymmetric, two-dimensional, finite-element program. Before conducting the analysis, the validity of the constitutive model was validated using field tests performed by authors with seven different footing diameters up to 0.90 m and with three different partial replacement thicknesses. It is shown that the behavior of the circular footings on natural clay soil and the partial replacement system can be reasonably well represented by the Mohr Coulomb model. The Mohr-Coulomb model parameters were derived from the results of conventional laboratory and field tests. After achieving a good consistency between the results of the test and the numerical analysis, the numerical analyses were continued by increasing the footing diameter up to 25 m, considering the partial replacement thickness up to two times the footing diameter. The results of this parametric study showed that the stabilization had a considerable effect on the bearing capacity of the circular footings and for a given value of H/D the magnitude of the ultimate bearing capacity increases in a nonlinear manner with the footing diameter. The Bearing Capacity Ratio (BCR) was defined to evaluate the improved performance of the reinforced system. It was found, based on numerical and field-test results that the BCR of the partially replaced, natural clay deposits increased with an increase in the footing diameter and there was no significant scale effect of the circular footing resting on natural clay deposits.
Keywords: scale effect, circular footing, field test, finite-element analysis, natural clay, granular fill
Published in DKUM: 13.06.2018; Views: 1151; Downloads: 152
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