Computer modelling of the residual limb for the development of prosthetic sockets and liners with the cellular structure : doctoral disertationVasja Plesec
, 2023, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: The production of lower limb prostheses continues to rely primarily on manual methods, which are outdated and characterized by labour-intensive processes, lengthy time requirements, high costs, and a heavy reliance on the expertise of prosthetists. Achieving a satisfactory fit between the residual limb and socket remains a challenge, often leading to discomfort, pain, and potential wearer tissue damage. However, advancements in computer technology and numerical simulation offer an opportunity to predict stresses and strains experienced by the residual limb during prosthesis usage. This, in turn, aids in the development process by enhancing the design of the prosthetic socket and liner through virtual environments. In this dissertation we developed a generic numerical transtibial model to bridge the gap between clinical practice and numerical simulations. Biomechanically validated, this model generates outcomes applicable to a broader amputee population, facilitating comparative analysis of socket and liner designs and materials under different loading conditions. Furthermore, the dissertation explores the utilization of a 3D-printed socket manufactured through the cost-effective fused filament fabrication process, using polylactic acid filament, aiming to reduce the costs and establish a streamlined production process. The 3D-printed socket was evaluated within the virtual environment using the developed transtibial model. The numerical findings indicate that the 3D-printed socket can effectively withstand the loads encountered during the stages of prosthesis donning, single-leg stance, heel strike, and push-off, thereby presenting a viable alternative to the prevalent composite socket. Additionally, a cellular structure composed of a flexible thermoplastic elastomeric material is proposed as a prosthetic liner to enhance comfort by reducing contact pressure while maintaining the required stability. Numerical results indicate that by manipulating cellular parameters such as unit cell type and relative density of the structure, a customized response can be achieved. This customized response effectively reduces contact pressure for a given scenario without increasing displacement, thereby improving comfort while maintaining stability.
Keywords: lower-limb prosthesis, generic numerical transtibial model, 3D-printed socket, cellular structure liner, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2023; Views: 100; Downloads: 6
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Designing an electromechanical generator for energy harvestingFranjo Pranjić
, Nejc Smolar
, Peter Virtič
, 2021, original scientific article
Abstract: Five different designs of tubular electromechanical generator for low frequency energy harvesting have been investigated in this paper. In order to design a simple and robust generator, models were constructed out of permanent magnets, steel and windings. In all five generator models, round movers were used in spherical and cylindrical form- for four models solely permanent magnets were used, and in one model, there was steel present in the mover. The movers are slid or rolled through a tube, and induce voltage in the stator winding. All windings were constructed with the same cross- -section dimensions and number of turns. To compare different models, 3D analysis with the Finite Element Method was performed, in order to determine the magnetic flux through the windings. The induced voltage was calculated using the results of the analysis. As a result of the different winding geometries, the average turn length varied for the different designs, subsequently altering resistance and inductance, which affected the generator`s power output and losses. To simulate the generator`s dynamics, an equivalent circuit model was constructed using the Simulink software and data obtained previously from a 3D electromagnetic analysis. With the Simulink model, we coupled the mechanical and electrical systems together to acquire the harvester yields.
Keywords: energy harvest, linear generator, permanent magnets, Finite Element Method
Published in DKUM: 13.11.2023; Views: 47; Downloads: 2
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Static model of temperature distribution in a photovoltaic moduleKlemen Sredenšek
, Sebastijan Seme
, Gorazd Hren
, 2021, original scientific article
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to present a static model for calculating the temperature distribution in a photovoltaic module using the finite element method. The paper presents in more detail the theoretical background of solar radiation, heat transfer, and the finite element method. The results of the static model are evaluated using temperature measurements of a photovoltaic model, which were performed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Faculty of Energy Technology, University of Maribor. The results of the regression analysis show a good concurrence between the measured and modelled values of the temperature of the photovoltaic module, especially on days with a higher share of the direct component of solar radiation.
Keywords: photovoltaic module, temperature distribution, heat transfer, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 13.11.2023; Views: 51; Downloads: 3
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Fabrication and mechanical testing of the uniaxial graded auxetic damperHasan Al-Rifaie
, Nejc Novak
, Matej Vesenjak
, Zoran Ren
, Wojciech Sumelka
, 2022, original scientific article
Abstract: Auxetic structures can be used as protective sacrificial solutions for impact protection with lightweight and excellent energy-dissipation characteristics. A recently published and patented shock-absorbing system, namely, Uniaxial Graded Auxetic Damper (UGAD), proved its efficiency through comprehensive analytical and computational analyses. However, the authors highlighted the necessity for experimental testing of this new damper. Hence, this paper aimed to fabricate the UGAD using a cost-effective method and determine its load–deformation properties and energy-absorption potential experimentally and computationally. The geometry of the UGAD, fabrication technique, experimental setup, and computational model are presented. A series of dog-bone samples were tested to determine the exact properties of aluminium alloy (AW-5754, T-111). A simplified (elastic, plastic with strain hardening) material model was proposed and validated for use in future computational simulations. Results showed that deformation pattern, progressive collapse, and force–displacement relationships of the manufactured UGAD are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions, thus validating the proposed computational and material models.
Keywords: uniaxial graded auxetic damper, energy absorber, mechanical properties, finite element method, explicit solver
Published in DKUM: 28.07.2023; Views: 231; Downloads: 14
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Optimizacija Chaboche materialnih parametrov z genetskim algoritmom : magistrsko deloNejc Dvoršek
, 2022, master's thesis
Abstract: The basis of this thesis is research and development of a genetic algorithm for material parameters optimization. It is written in collaboration with AVL, which already has a solution for this problem, but is looking into better alternatives. Chaboche material model is a nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardening model which can describe elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations. Parameters of such complex nature do not have a physical interpretation in the real-world and must be defined with inverse analysis. Genetic algorithms (GA) are a promising tool to help with such tasks. They have been widely used and recognized for various optimization problems. Material data available are low cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and tensile experiments. For each experiment a corresponding finite element model in Abaqus is prepared. Comparing experimental and simulation data is the objective function GA will try to minimize. For this reason, a corresponding fitness function was developed to score each individual. It makes use of similarity measure algorithm proposed in this paper . GA was implemented in Python with Pygad library. Instead of bits, genes are represented with real-valued numbers with defined limits. Performance of developed GA was tested based on various population sizes, mutation probabilities, and crossover operators. The main parameter that impacts algorithms performance is population size. Paired with right mutation probability the algorithm can find a global minimum of described optimization problem. Making it a viable alternative to existing approach used at AVL.
Keywords: Chaboche material model, parameter optimization, genetic algorithm, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 16.12.2022; Views: 470; Downloads: 0
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Validation of boundary element method for assessment of weld joints accounting for notch stress : magistrsko deloRok Skerbiš
, 2022, master's thesis
Abstract: Robust, automated mesh generation on arbitrary weld joint geometries, using finite element method (FEM) is a problematic task. It was previously discovered, that an arbitrary weld joint geometry can be parameterized inside a CAD environment , however when it comes to domain discretization and boundary conditions assignment, the parameterized approach becomes too demanding inside FEM. This results in long FEM model preparation times and sometimes in problems with the parametric model itself, which leads to a need for an additional numerical method - boundary element method (BEM), which overcomes this issue and is beneficial in this case. BEM is a numerical method, that in addition to other applications finds a use in the elasto-mechanic problems, where the only concern is the boundary of the considered geometric domain. Since notch stress calculations of weld joints fall into this category, their calculation can be carried out with it. Since there is not much available information on whether or not such calculations are a suitable alternative for the currently used FEM, this thesis had to be confirmed through a structured and step by step procedure. First, a notch mesh quality study has been made, then other entities followed. It was discovered that BEM is applicable to the problem and capable of calculating results with sufficient quality. Furthermore, the parameter driven approach and automated calculation provide for additional advantageous potentials.
Keywords: weld joint, boundary element method, finite element method, spatial discretization, notch stress
Published in DKUM: 02.11.2022; Views: 305; Downloads: 0
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CALIBRATION OF A NEW METHOD FOR CREATING IMPERFECTIONS ON SLENDER STRUCTURES : magistrsko deloSimon Hudales
, 2022, master's thesis
Abstract: For the design of slender structures consisting of plates and tubes, such as supporting structures at cranes, buckling is beside stress and fatigue often the governing failure criteria. Stability analysis of such structures is usually performed using the GMNIA method according to DIN EN 1993. For this purpose, a suitable geometric equivalent imperfection must be applied to the structure. Buckling inherent shapes are determined for this purpose and scaled according to applicable safety concepts. Including imperfections in stability analysis can generally be relevant for the load-bearing behavior of a structure. Within this master thesis work, the influence of the initial geometric imperfection on stability behaviour is investigated.
This study examines the influence, that imperfections imposed on members subjected to tensile stress have on stability behaviour. Tensile members of structures are identified and initial geometric imperfection is imposed on them in addition to critical members, that are subjected to compression stress. It is shown, that including imperfections on tensile members in stability analysis, has only a minor influence on stability behaviour and stiffness of the structure, both reducing it just slightly.
Further on, investigation on boom model, that is supporting structure of the crawler crane, is made. Boom model consist of main chord members and diagonals connecting them. At the joint connection of boom and two diagonal members, one subjected to tension and one subjected to compression stress, appears area of high shear stresses. Influence of the direction, that imperfection is imposed on the diagonal member, and what is the influence on the stability behaviour and structural strength is presented in this work. Most severe case of the two chosen direction is pointed out and discussed.
Keywords: stability analysis, initial geometric imperfections, thin-walled structures, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 06.07.2022; Views: 351; Downloads: 48
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Comparison and implementation of thermo-mechanical fatigue damage models : magistrsko deloJure Vinkovič
, 2021, master's thesis
Abstract: The basis of the master thesis is an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the scientific literature on damage models of thermo-mechanical fatigue. The aim of the thesis is to investigate and determine the suitability of damage models for their application in numerical simulations of components subjected to thermo-mechanical loading with in-phase, out-of-phase or constant temperature cycles. The theoretical background of material behavior under static and dynamic loads (e.g. low-cycle fatigue, high-cycle fatigue) is presented. The work also includes an overview of damage mechanisms typical of time-temperature varying loading conditions (e.g. cyclic softening and hardening of the material, mean stress relaxation, material creep, visco-plasticity, etc.). This is followed by a structured review of several damage models of thermo-mechanical fatigue (e.g. Neu-Sehitoglu, DTMF, Coffin-Manson, Ostergren, Smith-Watson-Topper, Unified Energy Approach, etc.). An overview of the experimental tests on aluminum alloy and cast iron carried out at temperatures up to 800 °C is given. The idea of processing the raw experimental data including the calibration procedure of the thermo-mechanical fatigue damage models is schematically illustrated and described. The basic mathematical laws of constitutive material models for both material types are given. In the conclusion of the MSc thesis, the correlations of the calibrated damage models are presented, which, together with the constructive opinions, give an important message on the application of the individual damage models depending on the type of material and the loading method.
Keywords: thermo-mechanical fatigue, constitutive material model, damage model, aluminum alloy, cast iron alloy, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 03.01.2022; Views: 677; Downloads: 0
Simulation of Dual-Beam Laser Metal Deposition : magistrsko deloMatej Kočevar
, 2021, master's thesis
Abstract: Laser metal deposition process plays an important role in the coating and additive manufacturing of the components. Implementation of dual-beam process represents a further development and offers the advantage of laser ablation process, which provides exert force on the melt pool and increases absorption properties of the workpiece for laser light in comparison to conventional laser metal deposition processes.
The main goal of the present work is to predict temperature distribution on the surface and in the cross-section during a dual-beam laser metal deposition. A better understanding of temperature distribution of the dual-beam laser metal deposition is crucial for analyzing the impact of different process parameters on the process. The prediction of temperature distribution was done using the version 6.14-6 of finite element software ABAQUS/Standard from Dassault Systèmes. The results of the simulations show that the temperature distribution in the case of dual-beam laser metal deposition can be determined with minimum deviation by utilizing the finite element analysis.
Keywords: Laser Metal Deposition (LMD), dual-beam process, wire-based Laser Metal Deposition (LMD-w), Finite Element Method (FEM)
Published in DKUM: 23.09.2021; Views: 799; Downloads: 57
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Comparison of different stator topologies for BLDC drives : master's thesisMitja Garmut
, 2020, master's thesis
Abstract: The focus of this Master's thesis was to increase the output-power density of a fractional-horsepower BLDC drive. Different stator segmentation topologies were analyzed and evaluated for this purpose. The presented analysis was performed by using various models with different complexity levels, where a Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) model and a 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM) model combined with a power-loss model, were applied systematically. Characteristic behavior of the BLDC drive was obtained in this way. The models were validated with measurement results obtained on an experimental test drive system. The influence of the weakening of the magnetic flux density and flux linkage, due to segmentation were analyzed based on the validated models. Furthermore, the increase of the thermal-stable output power and efficiency was rated, due to the consequently higher slot fill factor. Lastly, a detailed iron-loss analysis was performed for different stator topologies. The performed analysis showed that segmentation of the stator can enable a significant increase of the output power of the discussed BLDC drives, where the positive effects of segmentation outweigh the negative ones from the electromagnetic point of view. Segmentation, however, also impacts other domains, such as Mechanical and Thermal, which was out of the scope of this thesis, and will be performed in the future.
Keywords: fractional-horsepower BLDC drive, stator segmentation, fill factor increase, thermal-stable output power, Finite Element Method model
Published in DKUM: 17.11.2020; Views: 979; Downloads: 14
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