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11.
Polyphenols: extraction methods, antioxidative action, bioavailability and anticarcinogenic effects
Eva Brglez Mojzer, Maša Knez Marevci, Mojca Škerget, Željko Knez, Urban Bren, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.
Keywords: polyphenols, extraction, antioxidants, bioavailability, synergistic effects
Published in DKUM: 22.06.2017; Views: 1538; Downloads: 560
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12.
A benchmark of lidar-based single tree detection methods using heterogeneous forest data from the alpine space
Lothar Eysn, Markus Hollaus, Eva Lindberg, Frédéric Berger, Jean-Matthieu Monnet, Michele Dalponte, Milan Kobal, Marco Antonio Pellegrini, Emanuele Lingua, Domen Mongus, Norbert Pfeifer, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: In this study, eight airborne laser scanning (ALS)-based single tree detection methods are benchmarked and investigated. The methods were applied to a unique dataset originating from different regions of the Alpine Space covering different study areas, forest types, and structures. This is the first benchmark ever performed for different forests within the Alps. The evaluation of the detection results was carried out in a reproducible way by automatically matching them to precise in situ forest inventory data using a restricted nearest neighbor detection approach. Quantitative statistical parameters such as percentages of correctly matched trees and omission and commission errors are presented. The proposed automated matching procedure presented herein shows an overall accuracy of 97%. Method based analysis, investigations per forest type, and an overall benchmark performance are presented. The best matching rate was obtained for single-layered coniferous forests. Dominated trees were challenging for all methods. The overall performance shows a matching rate of 47%, which is comparable to results of other benchmarks performed in the past. The study provides new insight regarding the potential and limits of tree detection with ALS and underlines some key aspects regarding the choice of method when performing single tree detection for the various forest types encountered in alpine regions.
Keywords: single tree extraction, airborne laser scanning, forest inventory, comparative testing, co-registration, mountain forests, Alpine space, matching
Published in DKUM: 21.06.2017; Views: 1081; Downloads: 382
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13.
OLEORESINI IZ RDEČE PEKOČE PAPRIKE - EKSTRAKCIJA IN UPORABA
Jana Simonovska, 2016, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as widely distributed vegetable crop in the world is an excellent source of nutritive and biologically active compounds. The characteristic compounds, capsaicinoids and carotenoids, highlight the importance of the red hot pepper varieties and their oleoresin extracts in the food and pharmaceutical industry. In the Ph.D. thesis was studied the possibility for a separate and integral utilization of the red hot pepper for obtaining the oleoresins from pericarp, placenta, seeds and stalk. Pre-treatment of the raw material (drying, separation of anatomical structures i.e. pericarp, placenta and seeds, and determination of theirs physico-chemical characteristics and determination of the he characteristic bioactive compounds: capsaicinoids, carotenoids and volatiles was studied, also. The second part of the Ph.D. thesis was focused of the determination of the optimal conditions for isolation of the bioactive capsaicinoids and coloured compounds, through comparative following of the thermodynamical parameters by application of organic solvents and supercritical fluids. Influence of the working parameters: temperature, time, pressure, solid to liquid phase ratio, density, type of solvents, and particle size of raw material on the yield of extract and content of capsaicinoids, colour compounds and volatiles was studied. Modelling of the experimental phase data by application of mathematical methods was performed. Re-utilization of seed and stalk from red hot pepper in form of extracts for development of new formulations as edible films, biopesticides and nanoemulsions was studied, also.
Keywords: red hot pepper, pericarp, placenta, seed, stalk, extraction, sub- and supercritical fluids, bioactive compounds, volatiles, re-utilization, edible films, biopesticides, nanoemulsions
Published in DKUM: 08.11.2016; Views: 1952; Downloads: 166
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14.
Subcritical water as a green medium for extraction and processing of natural materials
Matej Ravber, 2016, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: In this doctoral dissertation, the application of subcritical water as a green medium for the extraction and processing of natural materials is presented. The work is divided into three main parts. In the first part, subcritical water is proposed as a solvent for the simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from oily seeds. The extraction parameters, such as temperature, time and material to solvent ratio that yield the highest amounts of both phases are examined. The quality of both obtained phases is examined. The characteristics of oils obtained using subcritical water is compared to that obtained using a conventional method. The second part of this work proposes subcritical water as an efficient solvent for the isolation of bioactive phenolic compounds from wood waste, that is produced by the forestry industry. Different wood fractions are firstly extracted in batch-mode and the fraction with the highest amounts of bioactive compounds is determined. Next, semi-continuous operation is applied, where the effects of different extraction parameters are studied on the extraction yield and quality of the extract. The effect of temperature and ethanol addition to the subcritical water on the content of single phenolic compounds identified in the extracts is observed. Lastly, the cost of manufacturing of such a product is estimated by evaluating the economics of different pilot- and industrial-scale processes operating at optimal conditions determined on the laboratory scale. The last part proposes the use of subcritical water as an efficient hydrolytic medium for glycoside bonded antioxidants, specifically those found in waste agro-industrial sources. Effect of temperature, treatment time, concentration and the atmosphere used for establishing the pressure in the reactor are first studied on a model glycoside compound - rutin and the optimal combination of reaction parameters are established for the batch-mode reactor. The degradation products of the model compound are identified and the concentration/time profiles of their degradation are observed. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics explaining the degradation of the rutin standard are evaluated. In the next step, the method is implemented on a real glycosides-containing extract. The extract is hydrolyzed at conditions obtained from the first step and the free aglycone is obtained at the highest yields possible. Lastly, the process is upgraded to continuous operation and the final hydrolyzed high-purity product is recovered.
Keywords: Subcritical water, Biowaste, Extraction, Hydrolysis, Antioxidants, Hydrothermal degradation.
Published in DKUM: 16.06.2016; Views: 1695; Downloads: 226
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15.
Extraction of curcuminoids with subcritical water : diploma thesis
Ignacio Macicior Borregón, 2015, undergraduate thesis

Keywords: subcritical water, extraction, curcuma
Published in DKUM: 06.11.2015; Views: 1390; Downloads: 60
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16.
Extraction of lutein diesters from tagetes erecta using supercritical $CO_2$ and liquid propane
Mojca Škerget, Miran Bezjak, Katja Makovšek, Željko Knez, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: The efficiency of high pressure extraction of lutein diesters from marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower petals has been investigated. The solvents used for extraction were supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid propane. Operating parameters were 300 bar and 40, 60 and 80 °C for $CO_2$ and 100, 150, 200 bar and 40 and 60 °C for propane, respectively. The influence of process parameterson the total yield of extraction and content of lutein diesters in the extracts was investigated. The results show, that solvent power of propanefor lutein diesters is approximately 3.5 times higher than of $CO_2$. The calculation procedure based on the Fick's second law was applied to determine the diffusivities of lutein diesters during extraction from marigold flower petals for both extraction stages: a constant rate stage followed by a stage of decreasing rate. The mathematical model based on the Fick's second law well described the experimental extraction results.
Keywords: lutein diesters, Tagetes errecta, extraction, supercritical $CO_2$, subcritical propane
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1358; Downloads: 126
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17.
Detection of planar points for building extraction from LiDAR data based on differential morphological and attribute profiles
Domen Mongus, Niko Lukač, Denis Obrul, Borut Žalik, 2013, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This paper considers a new method for building-extraction from LiDAR data. This method uses multi-scale levelling schema or MSLS-segmentation based on differential morphological profiles for removing non-building points from LiDAR data during the data denoising step. A new morphological algorithm is proposed for the detection of flat regions and obtaining a set of building-candidates. This binarisation step is made by using differential attribute profiles based on the sum of the second-order morphological gradients. Any distinction between flat and rough surfaces is achieved by area-opening, as applied within each attribute-zone. Thus, the detection of the flat regions is essentially based on the average gradient contained withina region, whilst avoiding subtractive filtering rule. Finally, the shapes of the flat-regions are considered during the building-recognition step. A binary shape-compactness attribute opening is used for this purpose. The efficiency of the proposed method was demonstrated on three test LiDAR datasets containing buildings of different sizes, shapes, and structures. As shown by the experiments, the average quality of the buildings-extraction was more than 95%, with 96%correctness, and 98%completeness. In terms of quality, this method is comparable with TerraScan R , but both methods significantly differ when comparing correctness and completeness of the results.
Keywords: LiDAR, mathematical morphology, segmentation, DAP, DMP, building extraction
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1338; Downloads: 409
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18.
A model of tool wear monitoring system for turning
Aco Antić, Goran Šimunović, Tomislav Šarić, Mijodrag Milošević, Mirko Ficko, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Acquiring high-quality and timely information on the tool wear condition in real time, presents a necessary prerequisite for identification of tool wear degree, which significantly improves the stability and quality of the machining process. Defined in this paper is a model of tool wear monitoring system with special emphasis on the module for acquisition and processing of vibration acceleration signal by applying discrete wavelet transformations (DWT) in signal decomposition. The paper presents a model of the developed fuzzy system for tool wear classification. The system comprises three modules: module for data acquisition and processing, module for tool wear classification, and module for decision-making. The selected method for feature extraction is presented within the module for data classification and processing. The selected model for the fuzzy classifier and classification in experimental laboratory conditions is shown within data classification and clustering. The proposed model has been tested in longitudinal and transversal machining operations.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, tool wear monitoring, feature extraction
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1271; Downloads: 119
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19.
Fast convex layers algorithm for near-duplicate image detection
Smiljan Šinjur, Damjan Zazula, Borut Žalik, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper builds on a novel, fast algorithm for generating the convex layers on grid points with linear time complexity. Convex layers are extracted from the binary image. The obtained convex hulls are characterized by the number oftheir vertices and used as representative image features. A computational geometric approach to near-duplicate image detection stems from these features. Similarity of feature vectors of given images is assessed by correlation coefficient. This way, all images with closely related structure and contents can be retrieved from large databases of images quickly and efficiently. The algorithm can be used in various applications such as video surveillance, image and video duplication search, or image alignment. Our approach is rather robust up to moderate signal-to-noise ratios, tolerates lossy image compression, and copes with translated, rotated and scaled image contents.
Keywords: near duplicate image detection, feature extraction, geometric features, convex layers, similarity measure
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1183; Downloads: 69
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20.
Influence of process parameters on the extraction of flavanones from mandarin peel
Katja Makovšek, Željko Knez, Mojca Škerget, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Flavanones are an important group of flavonoids that are characteristic for citrus. In the present work isolation of flavanones from mandarin peel was performed by conventional extraction using water, ethanol, acetone and aqueous solutions of acetone and ethanol. The extracts were analysed on the content and composition of flavanones. Furthermore the DPPH radical scavenging activity of extracts was determined. Finally, the influence of extraction parameters (particle size, extraction temperature, extraction time,material to solvent ratio, number of extraction stages and type of solvent) on the yield and the efficiency of extraction were determined by Plackett-Burman experimental design. The results showed that 70% aqueous solution of acetone was the most efficient solvent for isolation of flavanones from mandarin peel. The main flavanones present in the obtained extracts were hesperidin (HES) and narirutin (NRT). The number of extraction stages influenced the yield of extraction, type of solvent influenced the hesperidin extraction efficiency and particle size of material influenced the narirutin extraction efficiency.
Keywords: conventional extraction, mandarin peel, flavanone, hesperidin, narirutin, Plackett-Bauman experimental design
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1493; Downloads: 68
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