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THE IMPACT OF INDIVIDUAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF BUSINESS STUDENTS
Irena Kedmenec, 2015, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Social entrepreneurship is a rather new concept in the scientific literature, with many definitions, due to numerous approaches to the phenomenon and its numerous manifestations. This thesis wants to contribute to the field by exploring the creation of social entrepreneurial intention. Building on the theory of entrepreneurial event, it was proposed that social entrepreneurial intention had three main antecedents: perceived desirability of social entrepreneurship, propensity to act and perceived feasibility of social entrepreneurship. Based on the literature, three sets of factors that facilitate the formation of social entrepreneurial intention were proposed: individual, social and cultural factors. A questionnaire was created in order to collect the data. The questionnaire was completed by business students in five countries: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia. Firstly, the regression model confirmed that the perceived desirability of social entrepreneurship and perceived feasibility of social entrepreneurship had a positive impact on social entrepreneurial intention. However, propensity to act was not a significant antecedent of social entrepreneurial intention. Secondly, the impact of different factors on the perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of social entrepreneurship was explored. Three individual factors were proven to have a statistically significant positive impact on social entrepreneurship desirability: social entrepreneurship education, experience in prosocial behaviour, and empathy. None of the investigated social factors in the model had any statistically significant impact on social entrepreneurship desirability. Out of the analysed cultural factors, three of them had statistically significant impacts. These are power distance, masculinity and individualism. In the next phase, it was examined which individual, social and cultural factors influence the perceived feasibility of social entrepreneurship. Of the analysed individual factors, experience in prosocial behaviour again proved to have statistically significant positive impact. Hardship in life and creativity also increase the perceived feasibility of social entrepreneurship. Having a social entrepreneur among family and/or friends made social entrepreneurship look more feasible to the respondents. Knowing the entrepreneurial environment also increased the confidence in one’s ability to pursue a career in social entrepreneurship. Out of our cultural dimensions, only the power distance had a small positive influence. The research clearly establishes that an experience in prosocial behaviour strengthens social entrepreneurial intentions. Therefore, social entrepreneurship education should include gaining some experience in volunteering, activism and making donations. One of the factors that influence social entrepreneurship feasibility is creativity. Educators should give their students various assignments that develop creative thinking. These assignments should include an analysis of social problems in the local community and the development of possible solutions by using the resources at hand. This research confirms that investing in entrepreneurship infrastructure is justifiable, since the students with greater understanding of its main components scored higher in social entrepreneurship feasibility. The impact would probably be even stronger if special funding schemes and incubators designed specifically for social entrepreneurs were developed. Students should also receive the message that social entrepreneurs’ efforts are appreciated in their society. In future research, the model of social entrepreneurial intention should be upgraded with other possible factors of influence. Future studies should also explore the relationship between social entrepreneurial intention and behaviour by applying a longitudinal design.
Keywords: social entrepreneurial intention, social entrepreneurship, individual differences, social capital, culture
Published: 16.06.2015; Views: 1209; Downloads: 132
.pdf Full text (12,62 MB)

5.
Country's development as a determinant of early-stage entrepreneurial activity
Miha Marič, Jasmina Žnidaršič, Miha Uhan, Vlado Dimovski, Marko Ferjan, Maja Djurica, Mitja Jeraj, Matej Janežič, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Our study is built on the dependence of early-stage entrepreneurial activity on GDP per capita, GDP real growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, investments and public debt of different countries. We divide the early-stage entrepreneurial activity into necessity-driven and improvement-driven opportunistic entrepreneurial activity. To establish the dependencies we have conducted the regression analyses. Our three main findings are: (a) early-stage entrepreneurial activity does depend on our predictors; (b) necessity-driven entrepreneurial activity is negatively correlated to country’s development; and (c) improvement-driven opportunistic entrepreneurial activity is positively correlated to country’s development.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, early-stage entrepreneurial activity, economic developmnet indicators
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 633; Downloads: 136
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6.
The impact of market knowledge and institutional incentives on the internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovenia
Nuša Basle, 2015, master's thesis

Abstract: The internationalization of firms is an important part of globalization. Firms are looking for their opportunities in foreign markets. For this reason, they need to have specific market knowledge. They can create it themselves by primary market research and/or gain it from available secondary sources. Companies need to be aware that market knowledge is crucial for the internationalization process. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the most valuable part of both European and Slovenian economy. SMEs substantially contribute to economic growth and job creation and are considered the present and future backbone of the European and Slovenian economy. Because of the importance of SMEs, various programs and mechanisms for SMEs support were developed at the level of the European Union (EU) and Slovenia. These constitute Institutional Support and contain, among other things, financial and non-financial mechanisms to support the internationalization of SMEs.
Keywords: Internationalization, Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), Entrepreneurship, Market knowledge, Institutional Support, Slovenia
Published: 20.11.2015; Views: 751; Downloads: 65
.pdf Full text (5,73 MB)

7.
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A WAY FOR APPROACHING SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY - SOLVING THE ISSUE OF SOCIAL INCLUSION IN BIH BY ENCOURAGING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Anita Šimundža, 2016, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: SUMMARY Living in a time of materialism, when the ethical component of business is almost completely ignored, is the main challenge for all activists of different thinking, to offer ideas that can lead to new and important changes. Social entrepreneurship is an idea that has awakened much interest in recent decades, because it is based on different approaches of classical economic understanding. This concept in the cold logic of modern business brings warmth, a note of humanity and altruism, and contributes to the promotion of moral and ethical practices and standards. Initiatives of social entrepreneurship are always associated with humane ideas, aiming at the general social well-being, as opposed to traditional entrepreneurship, in which the profit is the primary goal and the main measure of success. Social entrepreneurship, as a model, in its ideological and practical function, aims to create a stable structure based on full utilization of human resources, offering new ways of resolving the numerous social and economic problems. A significant number of the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina is strongly affected by social exclusion. Among the most vulnerable are persons with disabilities, Roma and youth, while women in all groups are particulary vulnerable. The European Union practice shows that social entrepreneurship is a good instrument for eliminating poverty, social exclusion and unemployment. Compared to the European Union model, the potential for the development of social entrepreneurship is not being utilized enough in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bearing in mind these findings, the main objectives of this work is to explore and present theoretical approaches and concepts of social entrepreneurship and possible ways of overcoming social exclusion through social entrepreneurship, based on primary and secondary research. The strongest arguments for commitment to the development of social entrepreneurship in Bosnia and Herzegovina show facts: • Citizens of the Bosnia and Herzegovina recognize that entrepreneurship can contribute to the reduction of social problems, especially social exclusion. • The development of small and medium enterprises significantly influences the increase of social inclusion. The practical part included exploration of the needs for solving social exclusion, poverty and unemployment problems, and the possible ways of overcoming these problems through social entrepreneurship. Research of the situation and possibilities of development of social entrepreneurship included: 1. Survey with target groups, based on prepared questionnaire, which covered 400 unemployed persons from marginalized groups: women, youth, persons with disabilities and Roma, throughout Republic of Srpska (40 municipalities), in cooperation with non-governmental organizations and Employment Service of the Republic of Srpska. 2. Findings of survey with institutions, non-governmental organizations and small and medium enterprises Based on theoretical part of doctoral dissertation we confirm the sub-hypotheses: • H1.1: Human capital is the most important resource for achieving sustainable development goals; • H1.2: Gender is a significant predictor of socio-economic status of citizens, and • H1.5: By introducing special measures and support programs, it is possible to significantly improve the development of social entrepreneurship. Based on empirical research we partially confirm the sub-hypotheses: • H1.3: Citizens perceive entrepreneurship as a mechanism for overcoming social exclusion and • H1.4: Development of small and medium enterprises significantly influences the increase of social inclusion. In final, we partially confirm our main hypothesis H.1: Sustainable Community Development, viewed through the paradigm of social inclusion, is significantly associated with the development of social entrepreneurship.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social enterprises, employment, social exclusion, non-governmental organizations
Published: 01.06.2016; Views: 760; Downloads: 44
.pdf Full text (18,11 MB)

8.
The role of openness and entrepreneurial curiosity in company's growth
Mitja Jeraj, Miha Marič, Ivan Todorović, Mladen Čudanov, Stefan Komazec, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Entrepreneurial curiosity is an entrepreneurial-psychology related construct that measures a level of entrepreneurial curiosity among entrepreneurs. Key research objectives of the study were to empirically test how two independent constructs as openness and company`s growth are connected to entrepreneurial curiosity and to develop and empirically test a structural model linking these three constructs. A multi-country survey was made on a sample of entrepreneurs from Slovenia, USA and Serbia. Findings showed that openness is positively related to entrepreneurial curiosity and that entrepreneurial curiosity is positively related to company`s growth. Results of this study can be used both for further research and in practice.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, openness, entrepreneurial curiosity, company growth
Published: 24.07.2017; Views: 260; Downloads: 30
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9.
Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory 2002
Miroslav Rebernik, Dijana Močnik, Jožica Knez-Riedl, Karin Širec, Matej Rus, Polona Tominc, Tadej Krošlin, final research report

Abstract: Observatory provides an overview and analysis of the current situation in small and medium-sized enterprises in 2001. The situation in Slovenia was compared to that of SMEs in the European Union. In doing this, data gathered in the Observatory of European SMEs has been used, together with its basic methodology, which consists of three areas: standard topics included in the report every year, special in-depth studies chosen each year, and various other topics that may vary through time or represent a supplement to the existing relevant topics. The publication provides a standard review of Slovenian entrepreneurship in 2001 and a detailed description of tax incentives, administrative burdens for small and medium-sized enterprises in the area of recruitment and social responsibility of SMEs. The survey that was carried out was based on 1,153 analyzed responses, which were acquired by sending out 8,176 questionnaires. Study show that Slovenian small and medium-sized enterprises are more often involved in responsible social activities than European one, but also that almost half of small enterprises do not invest in research and development. Our research has also shown high administrative burdens faced by SMEs.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Business demography, Comparative analysis, Small and Medium-sized enterprises, Social responsibility, Administrative burdens
Published: 18.01.2017; Views: 435; Downloads: 63
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10.
Danube Region Entrepreneurship Observatory
Polona Tominc, Miroslav Rebernik, Barbara Bradač Hojnik, Karin Širec, scientific monograph

Abstract: There is no doubt about the importance of multi-country studies of entrepreneurial activity in enabling the comparison and replication of research and generating meaningful contributions to scholarship, practice and policy. This international comparison perspective is especially important when processes in each single economy are analysed against the broader global, European or regional environment. Since entrepreneurship is a complex social phenomenon, several dependencies can be understood only with comprehensive research that includes continuous positioning of national entrepreneurship in the European and global perspectives. Within Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) it is possible to compare data for more than 100 countries not only in the field of early-stage entrepreneurial activity but also in areas such as general attitudes of the adult population towards entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, etc. In this scientific monograph publication, we analyse the entrepreneurial profiles of Danube region countries, entrepreneurial intentions in the region and investigate the competition and aspirations of early-stage entrepreneurs in these countries.
Keywords: enterprises, entrepreneurship, business environment, characteristics, activities, economic development, human capital, competitivity, international comparisons, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Danube Region, Entrepreneurial Intentions, Entrepreneurial Growth Aspirations
Published: 18.01.2017; Views: 524; Downloads: 52
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