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1.
Energy Efficiency Indicators of a Single Unit House
Iztok Brinovar, Gregor Srpčič, Zdravko Praunseis, Sebastijan Seme, Bojan Štumberger, Miralem Hadžiselimović, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This article deals with the evaluation of energy efficiency indicators of an older single unit house with the use of "KI energija 2017" software, which is widely used among qualified Slovenian experts authorized to carry out the energy performance assessments and issue an energy performance certificate. The energy performance analysis before and after the implementation of proposed measures has shown significant energy saving potential in renovation of existing buildings.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy indicators, energy performance, building renovation, CO2 emissions
Published in DKUM: 04.12.2023; Views: 348; Downloads: 14
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Analysis and improvements of the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the regulating reserves : doctoral dissertation
Marcel Topler, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: This Doctoral Thesis deals with the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the regulating reserves (RRs), i.e., Imbalance Netting Process (INP) and Cross-Border Activation of the RRs (CBRR), between participating Control Areas (CAs), to reduce the costs of balancing energy. The main objective of INP is to interchange the RRs between participating CAs with opposite signs of interchange power variation. In comparison, the main objective of CBRR is to activate the RRs in participating CAs with the same signs of interchange power variation. Both the INP and CBRR aim to release the RRs and reduce balancing energy as part of the power system's safe operation. The Thesis's main objective is to analyze the impact of the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the RRs on mutual oscillations of participating CAs and stability for small disturbances. The Thesis's secondary objective is to analyze the impact of the INP and CBRR on frequency quality, on the provision of Load-Frequency Control (LFC), on balancing energy and unintended exchange of energies between participating CAs. Frequency quality in Continental Europe (CE) has been declining in recent years, so it is important that the mechanisms for cross-border interchange and activation of the RRs do not further impair its quality. Both the classic INP and CBRR include a frequency-dependent contribution and, therefore, inherently affect the frequency response of the participating CAs, which is not discussed in the literature. Thus, the impact of the classic INP and CBRR on frequency quality and the provision of LFC is thoroughly evaluated with dynamic simulations of a three-CA test system and eigenvalue analysis of a two-CA system. It is demonstrated that both the classic INP and CBRR reduce the damping of the entire power system. Therefore, a modified implementation of the classic INP and CBRR is presented, and improved INP and CBRR are proposed, which have no impact on the mutual oscillations of participating CAs and stability for small disturbances. Furthermore, the dynamic simulations results confirm that the frequency quality can be improved by the classic INP and CBRR, although there are also cases where it can deteriorate. However, the improved INP and CBRR generally improve the frequency quality in all cases. The improved INP and CBRR also enhance the provision of LFC compared to the classic INP and CBRR. Moreover, the improved INP and CBRR reduce the unintended exchange of energies, thus increasing the economic effects of the INP's and CBRR's activation. The improved INP increases energy exchange, therefore positive economic benefits can be expected in comparison to the system with the classic INP. However, the improved CBRR reduces energy exchange, therefore positive economic benefits can be expected in comparison to the system with the classic CBRR, since energy exchange is paid by CA via bidding process.
Keywords: load-frequency control, imbalance netting, cross-border activation, balancing energy, regulating reserves, eigenvalue analysis, performance indicators, area control error, rate of change of frequency, control area
Published in DKUM: 09.03.2023; Views: 428; Downloads: 80
.pdf Full text (14,64 MB)

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