ENERGY MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE COMPANY KOPUN SIMTO Ltd.Kaja Černjavič
, 2013, master's thesis
Abstract: The problem we referred to is great and mostly uncontrolled energy consumption in the public and private sector not just in Slovenia but also in other countries around the world. In Europe some restrictions were met, which resulted in 2009 in a new standard, the EN 16001:2009, two years later the International Standardization Body issued the ISO 50001:2011, energy management standard.
With the help of a case study potential in energy and emissions as well as overall environmental protection was presented. All anticipated research methods were followed, hypothesises set in the introduction were carefully researched and mainly proven to be right whereas some, hypothesis one and two, connected with the increase of energy consumption in Slovenia and hypothesis two, number of certificates per capita, were refuted. The overall consumption of energy in Slovenia decreased (table 2, page 15) in the year 2011 compared to 2010. Slovenia is also not the country with the lowest number of issued energy certificates per capita; Portugal has two (picture 1, page 35).
Hypothesises three to five linked to the study case were fully proven to be right; the company did not have an energy management programme but the owners were fully aware of the possibilities of energy savings. There was as well energy savings potential, proven to be even more that the first anticipated 50-percent.
Our conclusion is that energy management plays a key role in sustainable development and environment conservation practices, as it helps the country move towards an energy efficient economy. With the help of the case study we made a good illustration how a micro company saved 75-percent of energy costs in the first year, by using energy management as a tool. The main and general changes enhanced the company’s energy efficiency, taught employees some basic techniques for achieving greater energy efficiency and cost reduction not just inside the organization but also in family homes. It is important, that expenditures concerning energy purchase and consumption are exactly defined. Before the implementation and certainly after it, energy management accounting and energy management audits should be performed. This serves as a tool to realize and understand the full spectrum of the environmental costs and helps to create internal demand in businesses for cleaner and less wasteful production processes. It gives organizations a preferential position to engage in pollution prevention activities mainly because it makes good business sense due to the immediate financial benefits it delivers.
The prime goal of the thesis was to stimulate organizations to implement the concepts of energy management practices into their organizational structure and to use energy management systems for lowering energy and other environmental costs, no matter the size or segment the organization. There is no need to get certified if not wanted; just performing these activities is enough, as it brings all the benefits to the environment. Helping to achieve this goal is now mainly in the hands of others, it is important how the country will act and react and help organizations to achieve this goal. Different restrictions can be met on the field of law and taxes, subsidies, etc.
We believe that, for meeting all the required goals (Kyoto protocol and other) and help the economy to move towards a sustainable one, organizations will have to reorganize their structures and implement energy management. There are big potentials in reduction of emissions and energy consumption, with energy management, organizations can get the help and knowledge how to keep the budget of energy consumption as low as possible, how to meet all the critical objectives and also important, reduce their operational costs on a long-term basis.
Keywords: energy management, energy efficiency, energy conservation, energy consumption, energy accounting and auditing, energy manager, International Standards Organization (ISO), energy management system EnMS, cost efficiency
Published: 19.05.2014; Views: 1020; Downloads: 61
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Solar powered transport solutionMatjaž Knez
, Ali Naci Celik
, Tariq Muneer
, 2013, professional article
Abstract: Fossil-fuel based transport poses two chief problems - local and global pollution, and dwindling supplies and ever increasing costs. An elegant solution is to gradually replace the present automobile fleet with electric vehicles (EVs). This article explores the economics and practical viability of the provision of solar electricity for the charging of EVs by installation of economical available PV modules. A steep decline in the module, inverter and installation costs is reported herein. Present estimates indicate that for the prevailing solar climate of Celje - a medium-sized Slovenian town - the cost would be only 2.11 EUR cents/kWh of generated solar electricity.
Keywords: energy consumption, fuel consumption
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 1422; Downloads: 16
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Development of smart energy meter using arm platformDarijo Topić
, 2017, master's thesis
Abstract: This master thesis describes the development of smart electricity energy meter on the ARM platform. In general, the commercial electrical energy meters are measuring only the total active energy, therefore, users cannot also monitor other important power consumption parameters. The goal of this thesis is to develop a prototype of smart ARM based energy meter, which is capable to measure several power consumption parameters and display them on a webpage in real-time. In the thesis the complete design of the ARM based smart energy meter is presented in detail. Further, the development of user interface for displaying measured data on the webpage in real-time is also presented. These results are presented both in textual and graphical form. Additionally, the theory of electric power consumption measurements and some commercial energy meters are presented.
Keywords: energy meter, ARM processor, power consumption, internet of things, calibration, green environment, energy consumption measurement, emoncms
Published: 16.11.2017; Views: 869; Downloads: 168
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Agronomski in okoljski vidiki prekrivnih posevkov v ekološki pridelavi zelenjadnicMartina Robačer
, 2019, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: Cover crops can reduce the use of external inputs such as pesticides and fertilisers and can at the same time suppress weeds as well as improve or maintain soil fertility. Cover crops can also modify the microclimate which affects pest populations and diseases. Determining cover crop species and management practices is based on the needs and goals of production. The effects of introducing living mulch (LM) and management strategies on cash crop yield, product quality and energy use were studied in certain European countries (Slovenia, Italy, Germany and Denmark) in different climatic and soil conditions. In Slovenia, in organic production of cauliflower and leek, the effects of two terms of sowing white clover with additive design were compared with a production with black foil and with the usual agricultural practice by hoeing. In the field experiments the effect of LM on arthropod dynamics and activity density was investigated. The results demonstrated that the LM systems with a substitutive design, can be effectively implemented in vegetable production if the value of the ecological services (positive externalities) delivered by LM can counterbalance the yield loss due to the cash crop density reduction. If an additive design is used, the LM should be sown several weeks after the cash crop planting. Different cash crop genotypes (i.e., open pollinated/local cultivars in comparison with the hybrids) performed similarly. Use of human labor (HL) and fossil fuel (FF) energy slightly increased in LM systems (7%). The farmers’ acceptance of the LM techniques was quite high (75% of the interviewed sample). The LM technique did not affect the infestation of cabbage caterpillar Pieris spp., showing no detrimental effect of this technique on this key pest of cabbage. In Denmark, aphid populations were higher in the sole crop system than in the LM system. In Italy, a level of larval parasitization was detected and in the first year the percentage of parasitization was higher in LM (88%) than in sole crop (63%). Overall, the LM positively affected the activity density of Carabid beetles, also increasing the diversity and evenness of species (Slovenia and Italy) or activity density of some taxa (Slovenia and Denmark). Due to numerous agroecological services of cover crops, growing simultaneously with vegetables as LM, this could be promising technique for organic and others production systems in the future.
Keywords: organic vegetable production, cover crops, agroecological service, living mulch, energy consumption, biodiversity, soil arthropod
Published: 01.02.2019; Views: 432; Downloads: 75
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