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Small hydropower plants in Western Balkan countries : status, controversies and a proposed model for decision making
Barbara Pavlakovič Farrell, Andrea Okanovic, Bojana Vasić, Jelena Jesic, Polona Šprajc, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: As the countries of the Western Balkans (WB) have committed to sustainable development, the process of regulatory and economic adjustment is underway. As part of the aforementioned fact, the WB countries have commenced exploitation of energy from renewable sources, among which hydropower is the most important. The main objective of the study is to analyse the status of renewable energy transition in the WB region, focusing on the construction and exploitation of small hydropower plants (SHPPs), as well as a proposal for an original model for decision making in this field, based on a multidimensional decision-making space. Namely, in most cases, there is resistance to the construction of SHPPs in the WB territory, as well as divided opinion among investors, companies, environmental movements, academia, and citizens on this issue. This shows that the entire decision-making process has to be reviewed and re-designed. Results: The results of the study show that the construction of SHPPs caused damage to environmentally protected areas, living conditions of local communities, touristic and agricultural potential. All of the foregoing matters have led to mass protests by citizens and a high degree of mistrust so that the future of SHPPs in the WB is extremely uncertain. The assessment of the acceptability of existing SHPPs through the proposed model showed that 74% of SHPPs cannot be considered acceptable from the aspect of the location where they were built, and from the aspect of the impact on the quality of life of the local population. Accordingly, this paper provides suggestions for much-needed improvements. Conclusions: The construction of SHPPs is causing numerous controversies, opposition, and resistance. To find the right solution, and contribute to sustainable energy and economic development, it is necessary to develop a fully transparent and objective policy system in this field, and to use contemporary models for decision making with emphasis on the involvement local communities in the decision-making process.
Keywords: sustainable energy transition, small hydropower plants, environmental awareness, modelling, decision making process, Western Balkans
Published in DKUM: 28.06.2024; Views: 331; Downloads: 2
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Prices of conventional and renewable energy as determinants of sustainable and secure energy development : regression model analysis
Sandi Knez, Goran Šimić, Anica Milovanović, Sofia Starikova, Franc Željko Županič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background The prices of energy resources are important determinants of sustainable energy development, yet associated with significant unknowns. The estimates of the impact of prices of energy products in the domestic market (for domestic consumers) are rare—hence the importance and novelty of this research. Therefore, the main goal of the paper is to assess the impact of domestic prices of gasoline, gas, coal, and solar energy on sustainable and secure energy future. Methods The research includes 14 countries (of which 7 are developed and 7 are developing countries) and a period of 5 years (2014–2018). The model also includes discrete variables: level of development (developing or developed), and the fact as to whether the country is an energy exporter or not. For the purposes of analysis, the following elements were used: Panel Data Analysis, Linear regression (with random and fixed effects), Durbin–Wu–Hausman test, and Honda test, with the use of R-studio software for statistical computing. Results The research showed that the biggest negative impact on energy sustainability was recorded by an increase in the price of coal and the smallest one by an increase in the price of solar energy. An increase in the price of gasoline has a positive impact, while an increase in the price of gas has no impact. The basic methodological result showed that the fixed effects linear model is more accurate than the random effect model. Conclusions The results of the paper, important as a sustainable energy policy recommendation, showed that the impact of changes in energy product prices is significantly greater in developing countries, but that the status of the country as an energy exporter has no significance. In addition, the paper points to the need to intensify the research on the assessment of the impact of energy product prices for domestic consumers on their ability to pay that price, because with a certain (so far undefined) increase in energy product prices, a certain group of domestic consumers moves into a category that is not in line with sustainable energy development and is extremely undesirable in every respect—energy poverty.
Keywords: sustainable energy development, conventional energy prices, solar prices, developing countries, R-studio
Published in DKUM: 26.06.2024; Views: 76; Downloads: 6
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6th International Conference En-Re Energy & Responsibility : Book of Extended Abstracts

Abstract: In the context of escalating climate challenges, the EnRe conference is dedicated to exploring pathways to climate neutrality and the sustainable green transition. The conference is focused on the development and implementation of innovations supporting the transformation of energy systems, industrial systems, and living systems, all with the goal of creating a sustainable future with net-zero emissions. The conference brings together experts, researchers, policymakers, and business leaders to share their experiences, research, and visions. The aim of the conference is to foster collaboration and exchange of ideas, and to collectively develop comprehensive approaches and strategies for achieving climate neutrality. This conference is not just a knowledge exchange, but also a platform for encouraging concrete actions that will ensure a greenerand more sustainable future for our next generations to come.
Keywords: alternative energy systems, dynamic tariffing, electrical machines and drives, energy conversions, financing energy projects, nuclear energy, conventional energy systems, climate changes - climate pan, mathematical methods in engineering, micro and nano energy, low-carbon technologies and strategies, renewable energy technologies heating and cooling systems, smart buildings, cities and networks, policies and strategies for renewable energy sources, energy efficiency and the climate
Published in DKUM: 17.05.2024; Views: 259; Downloads: 20
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The Thermochemical Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste by Torrefaction Process
Maja Ivanovski, Darko Goričanec, Danijela Urbancl, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: In this work, the thermochemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are studied using the torrefaction process as the main method for investigation. Torrefaction experiments were carried out using an electric laboratory furnace, at temperatures of 200, 250, and 300 °C. The residence time was set to 90 min. Proximate and ultimate analysis were performed on the torrefied MSW samples and compared with the properties of the raw MSW samples. In addition, the thermal properties of the obtained torrefied MSW samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). The following could be stated: the obtained results showed that mass and energy yields (MY and EY, respectively) decrease with increasing when torrefaction temperature, while the heating values (HHV) increased under the same conditions (from 24.3 to 25.1 MJ/kg). Elemental analysis showed an increase in carbon content (C), from 45.7 ± 0.9 to 52.8 ± 1.05 wt.%, and decrease in oxygen content (O), from 45.6 ± 0.9 to 39.5 ± 0.8 wt.%, when torrefaction temperature is increased, which is consistent with the general definition of the torrefaction process. In addition, enhancement factors (EFs) and fuel ratios (FRs) were calculated, which ranged from 1.00 to 1.02 and 0.16 to 0.23, respectively. Some anomalies were observed during the thermal analysis, which are assumed to be related to the composition of the selected MSW. This study therefore shows that torrefaction pretreatment can improve the physicochemical properties of raw MSW to a level comparable to coal, and could contribute to a better understanding of the conversion of MSW into a valuable, solid biofuel.
Keywords: biomass, municipal solid waste, torrefication, energy yield, thermogravimetric analysis
Published in DKUM: 10.05.2024; Views: 204; Downloads: 13
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Smoothness of graph energy in chemical graphs
Katja Zemljič, Petra Žigert Pleteršek, 2023, original scientific article

Keywords: graph energy, smothness, chemical graphs
Published in DKUM: 08.05.2024; Views: 175; Downloads: 7
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1D battery electric vehicle thermal management system calibration and simulation based on measurements : magistrsko delo
Manja Umbreht, 2024, master's thesis

Abstract: Electric vehicles are developing at an increased rate due to electrification trends and are trying to achieve the comfort level of existing vehicles with internal combustion engines. In this thesis, we considered a battery electric vehicle, with which measurements were carried out. We created a complete vehicle model in GT Suite software based on available measurements and vehicle data. The model was used to simulate measured test cases. We described the calibration procedure of standalone models and the assembly of a complete thermal model of the entire vehicle. At the end we compared three simulated test cases with vehicle measurements. We concluded that the developed vehicle simulation model behavior fits well to the measured vehicle.
Keywords: 1D CFD, VTMS, energy consumption, measurements, battery electric vehicle
Published in DKUM: 22.04.2024; Views: 149; Downloads: 0
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Exploring digital twins in the transport and energy fields : a bibliometrics and literature review approach
Milena Kajba, Borut Jereb, Tina Cvahte Ojsteršek, 2023, review article

Abstract: Logistics and transport are major sources of energy consumption that still rely heavily on fossil fuels. Especially in the freight sector, finding means to optimise fuel consumption and energy efficiency are increasingly important. Digital twins’ adaptation in logistics and transport is not as frequent as in production, but their implementation potential is immense. This technology can replicate real environments, allowing verification of various scenarios without real-life application, leading to optimal implementation outcome faster and more efficiently. This paper aims to research digital twins’ use in logistics and transport, focusing on digital twins’ potential and effects to optimise energy consumption. Firstly, previous research on digital twins in specified fields was identified, followed by a quantitative literature review. The latter focused on codifying the selected publications based on criteria such as modality, specific environment, energy consumption, etc. Furthermore, a qualitative overview of 57 relevant publications on digital twins’ use in logistics and transport was made. The main contribution of this paper is the systematic overview of digital twins from the viewpoint of energy optimisation in one of the most energy-dependent sectors. This gives researchers a good starting point for further research and digital twins’ practical implementation cases.
Keywords: logistics, transport, digital twin, energy consumption, optimisation, literature review, bibliometrics
Published in DKUM: 22.04.2024; Views: 91; Downloads: 10
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Requirements for establishing energy hubs : practical perspective
Mahmoud A. Hammad, Sara El Gazzar, Borut Jereb, Marjan Sternad, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The global economy has barely begun to recover from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, only to be thrown into a new crisis because of the Russian-Ukrainian war. The war exacerbated the energy problem by causing a shortage of energy supplies for the EU and other countries, affecting quality of life. As a result, establishing energy hubs for collecting, processing, storing, and transiting energy resources between producing and consuming countries has become imperative to manage energy supplies efficiently. However, previous studies have not yet addressed the requirements for setting up energy hubs from a practical point of view. Therefore, this paper investigates the requirements for the establishment of energy hubs, particularly for oil and gas, from a practical perspective. The researchers conducted 13 semi-structured interviews with different energy stakeholders. Using the SWOT analysis matrix tool, the findings assessed the current state of the global oil and gas market, and the main practical requirements for the establishment of energy hubs were identified, along with the elements for implementation. Furthermore, the article highlighted the most pressing practical issues confronting the establishment of energy centres. Finally, the paper laid out a comprehensive practical framework based on the industry practitioners’ views to help establish energy hubs. The framework provides a possible guide for countries to establish energy hubs based on the main requirements outlined in this study. It can also improve the diversity, flexibility, and security of energy supply, especially for countries that rely on sole suppliers, such as the EU.
Keywords: energy hubs, energy stakeholders, diversification of energy supplies, security and sustainability of energy supply, European Union countries, Russian-Ukrainian war
Published in DKUM: 19.04.2024; Views: 239; Downloads: 7
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