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1.
Ecological alternatives to the reduction and oxidation processes in dyeing with vat and sulphur dyes
Mojca Božič, Vanja Kokol, 2008, review article

Abstract: This article gives a summary of the most commonly used ecologically unfriendly processes for the reduction and oxidation of vat and sulphur dyes. It also describes the new alternatives that are in the development stage and could be important in the near future. Sodium dithionite as the dominant reducing agent produces large amounts of sodium sulphate, and also toxic sulphite and thiosulphate as by-products. Consequently, high amounts of hydrogen peroxide and alkali are required for the treatment of effluents, which add to the cost of the process. Attempts have been made to use organic biodegradable reducing agents, enzymes, catalytic hydrogenation, and also indirect or direct, electrochemical reductive methods that employ a redox mediator (electron-carrier). The reduction has also been carried out via the dye radical molecule or, in the case of indigo, by direct electrochemical reduction using graphite as the electrode material. Physical techniques, for example using ultrasound, magnetic fields or UV have been shown to be effective only when used to accelerate methods using classical reduction and oxidation processes. However, although these methods offer some environmental benefits, there is still no satisfactory alternative reducing and/or oxidising agent available today.
Keywords: textile dyeing, vat dyes, sulphur dyes, reduction, oxidation, catalysis, ecology, organic agents, electrochemistry, ultrasound, magnetic field, UV application, biotechnology
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1420; Downloads: 75
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2.
Good quality printing with reactive dyes using guar gum and biodegradable additives
Reinhold Schneider, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: In printing with reactive dyes sodium alginates or synthetic thickeners are typically used as thickening agents to prevent unacceptable fabric handle. A new reactive printing process for reactive dyes on cellulosic textiles has been developed using natural thickening agents and environmental-friendly additives. Printing trials with guar gums have shown that the use of differentadditives can prevent fabric stiffness. These additives have no significant influence on rheology and colour strength but contributed to soft fabric handle even when guar gums were used as thickening agent. The use of additives and guar gum provide good quality prints with reduced wastewater pollution.
Keywords: textile printing, guar gum, additives, fabric handle, printing quality, ecology, environmental protection
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1651; Downloads: 61
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PCA - a powerful method for analyze ecological niches
Franc Janžekovič, Tone Novak, 2012, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: principal component analysis, ecology, environment, biology
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1264; Downloads: 90
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Process reengineering and innovation of remaking soapsuds
Andreja Verbič, Tomaž Kern, Drago Vuk, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: This article uses a business process renovation method to address an environmental protection problem. The presented case, studied in factories which remake crude vegetable oil (soapsuds remake), focuses on reengineering one of the business processes which is classified as an obligatory process. This process has to be performed to comply with the requirements of the existing ecology legislation. Therefore, it is reasonable to take a radical approach - business process reengineering. Soapsuds with oil remnants are a secondary product in the vegetable oil refining process. According to the legislation, secondary products as waste are not acceptable for the environment. Soapsuds remake as it is currently carried out produces technical fatty acids and, as a side product, calcium sulphate. Calcium sulphate is listed as special waste; therefore it must be deposited in a special waste landfill site. In the course of searching for a solution to this ecological problem, a new idea came up, namely that soapsuds are taken to the biogas plant. At the biogas plant, they can be decomposed into biogas, which is then used to generate electric energy, for heating or to supplement municipal gas. Thus, the reengineering of the process is upgraded into process innovation and environmental innovation. Using data obtained from the available literature, we managed to prove that process reengineering, which is simultaneously process innovation and ecological innovation, can be applied in practice. Side products resulting from the anaerobic digestion of soapsuds in the biogas plant comply better with the requirements of the Slovenian ecological legislation than those occurring in the process used up to now.
Keywords: business process reengineering, process innovation, soapsuds remake, biogas plant, ecology
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 543; Downloads: 234
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10.
Environmental management in Slovenian industrial enterprises
Vesna Čančer, 2002, original scientific article

Abstract: Stimulated with the firm belief that environmental management helps enterprises to achive business success, expressed by a majority of managers in the sample enterprises, we present the results of an empirical study in the Slovene processing industry. The purpose of our research work is to identify, analyse and present the importance of the environment in business decision-making, the role of environmental management in strategic decision-making and its distribution across the business functions environmental performance in business processes the use of the methods for environmentally oriented business decision-making and the developmental tendencies of environmental management in Slovene enterprises of the processing industry. We define the key drivers of environmental management and their effect on the environmental behaviour of these enterprises. We present and interpret data indicating that environmental management is caused not only by compliance and regulation, but also by competition and enterprises own initiative.
Keywords: Slovenia, management, environmental protection, ecology, industry, studies, empirical research
Published: 04.07.2017; Views: 356; Downloads: 53
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