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1.
Modern deformation measurement techniques and their comparison
Boštjan Kovačič, Rok Kamnik, Miroslav Premrov, Nenad Gubeljak, Jožef Predan, Zdravko Tišma, 2008, review article

Abstract: Deformation measurement experiment has been undertaken where a concrete structure was subject to controlled loading. Concrete plate was loaded with hydraulic cylinder PZ 100 up to 42 kN. Nikon total station ser. 720 and camera Fuji Pro S3 have been used to make measurements at critical points during each additional load. A hydraulic computer operated cylinder was used for load increase. The use of total stations for deformation measurements is quite often, but the combination with digital photography is rather new and very suitable technique. It offers the capability of simultaneous monitoring of a large number of signalized or non-signalized points with very low root mean square error of 0.16 mm in geodetic method 0.7 mm in photogrammetry, respectively. The concrete plate was modeled and the comparison with the geodetic, photogrammetric and hydraulic method was made.
Keywords: deformation measurements, geodesy, digital photogrammetry
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1551; Downloads: 31
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2.
Vertical displacements measuring methods during bridge load tests
Boštjan Kovačič, Ante Marendić, Rok Kamnik, Mikhail Volkov, Vera Roy, 2016, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This article introduces the use of the GNSS method for the load testings of bridge structures. We know that there area lot of methods by which you can determine vertical displacement. However, as new bridge constructions are constructed over almost impossible and inaccessible gorges and valleys, the classic measurements method do not allow us to determine vertical displacement so reliably any more or they are very time-consuming. The GNSS method is well known but there are difficulties when determining the altitude component of this method, which is rather questionable. For this purpose, the methods were tested as practical examples in which some difficulties were encountered, so subsequently another test recording was performed of altitude changes using this method.
Keywords: bridges, measurements, strain gauge, load test, deformation, strain, signal processing
Published: 29.08.2016; Views: 654; Downloads: 215
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3.
The different methods of displacement monitoring at loading tests of bridges or different structures
Boštjan Kovačič, Rok Kamnik, Andrii Bieliatynskyi, 2016, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: By measuring the displacements and deformations at different structures we deal in the Faculty of Civil Engineering, transportation Engineering and Architecture in University of Maribor for about 20 years. At that time we measured over 600 structures. Most loading tests of bridges and Viaducts were made. The measurements of movements needed to be as precise and accurate as possible. To do that laboratory test of instruments were made to see which instrument gives us reliable results. Displacements can be determined by geodetic and physical methods, depends of the construction. The use of geodetic methods are still preferable. In the paper the measurements with the total station, the level and rotation level, photogrammetry and solutions on the field by physical methods with inductive transducers are presented. We need to measure displacements as quick as possible but efficiently because we can not repeat the measurements under the same conditions. Also the surveying on the bridge and in the lab with the comparison of methods is presented under the different hard terrain conditions - water beneath the construction, big height of the structure, unapproachability, large span structures.
Keywords: bridges, measurements, strain gauge, load test, deformation, strain, signal processing
Published: 02.08.2017; Views: 410; Downloads: 178
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4.
GNSS monitoring of geologically demanding areas
Boštjan Kovačič, Boško Pribičević, Rok Kamnik, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Displacement research using the three-dimensional global navigation satellite system (GNSS) as part of geodetic monitoring is becoming the key investigation for establishing a cause-and-effect relationships model between external natural factors, on the one hand, and the criteria that describes the level of functionality and safety of the observed natural or artificial object, on the other, in cases of motion of an object in space and time. The main objective of the deformation analysis is to confirm the stabilities of the reference points of a geodetic network, which are used to determine the movements of the control points that are stabilized on the observed objects. The assumption about the stabilities of certain reference points must be based on reasonable grounds, underpinned by measurements and proven by numerical methods. This is one part of the results of the deformation analysis when determining the extent of the movements and deformations. To do this a transformation is used in which a comparison is made between the coordinates of the points for two separate epochs. On the basis of the estimated transformation parameters, possible movements can be concluded within the reference points, i.e., on whether the datum parameters have changed. After confirming the stability of the geodetic network the coordinate differences of identical points measured within the different time windows can be determined as displacements and/or deformations of an object. In this paper one viaduct was assessed through geology and tectonic activities and also a load test of the viaduct was performed. The viaduct is in a quite active region, but the load test showed that the bridge response to the load is as expected.
Keywords: geodesy, geotehnics, monitoring, GNSS measurements, geology, deformation analysis, geodetic network
Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 336; Downloads: 21
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